Course Description

Science Research Program – Grades 9, 10, 11, 12


Full Year – Level H: Incoming freshman and sophomore students must apply for admission to this program in January of the prior academic year. Acceptance into the program will be based on a science teacher recommendation, a written essay, and excellent academic grades.


This is an ongoing program that is taken in conjunction with the student’s regular science course. There are several tiers to the program. During Year 1 students learn the components of scientific research including the scientific method and apply these concepts in various settings including designing and conducting an authentic science research project and communicating results by participation in at least one local science fair. Students also explore various applications of science topics through field trips, guest speakers and class projects. Advanced students (Years 2-4) select their science research topic, locate an out-of-school mentor (either in industry or at a local university) and compete in a variety of science fairs including the CT State Science Fair, Southern CT Invitational Science and Engineering Fair (SCSEF) and the CT Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (CT JSHS). Advanced students pursue their selected research in depth, perform statistical analysis and compete at a number of local and/or national science fairs and competitions. In Years 2, 3, and 4 students are grouped together in a non-traditional classroom setting and are required to meet individually outside of class with their Science Research Instructor biweekly to review individual goals and assess progress. All students participate in the culminating annual activity, Amity’s Science Symposium.


Wednesday, October 20, 2010

2010-11 Research Proposals

Please place your 2010-11 Research Proposal on this Post. Proposals should be approximately 250 words. Be sure to include your name (or initials) and research title followed by a single paragraph including:

Research Question
Hypothesis
Variables
Methods
Location
Mentor (if applicable)

44 comments:

  1. Satish Bhat

    Using Polyhydroxyalkanoates for Tissue Regeneration

    In this study, the researcher will be testing if polyhydroxyalkanoates can be used as a reasonable way of creating tissue scaffolds for eventual use in the human body. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters that are essentially are a naturally occurring plastic. To produce PHA’s, a culture of a micro-organism such as Alcaligenes Eutrophus is placed in a suitable medium, warm environment so that it multiplies rapidly. Once the population reaches a substantial level, the nutrient composition is changed to force the micro-organism to synthesize the PHA’s. The yield of PHA’s obtained from Alcaligenes Eutrophus can be as high as 80% of the organism’s dry weight. They are developed from sugars or lipids. The hypothesis that has been developed is that: If polyhydroxyalkanoates are extracted from lipids or sugars, then they will be a valid way of replacing other scaffolds in tissue regeneration. The independent variable is the polyhydroxyalkanoates themselves. The dependent variable is the ability to use the scaffold in the human body. The constants will include the linear polyester itself, polyhydroxyalkanoates, the environment and the way that the polyhydroxyalkanoates are produced. The procedure will include fermenting the sugars and lipids until they can be forced to produce PHA’s. Then the polyhydroxyalkanoates will be extracted from the sugars and lipids. The linear polyesters will be used to create a scaffold for eventual use in a human or mouse. For data analysis, the researcher will use table, graphs, and statistical analysis. The researcher will see the percentages of polyhydroxyalkanoates that are produced from the sugars are lipids. The research will be conducted at UCONN in the polymer building with the help of Dr. Alex Asandei.

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  2. Ming Zhao
    AZD-8579 and Ketamine-Induced Schizophrenic Symptoms


    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that affects 1.1% of the U.S. population age 18 and older. Positive symptoms (psychotic behavors not seen in healthy people) include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and movement disorders. Negative symptoms (disruptions to normal behavior) include the flat affect, laconism, and social withdrawal. There are also a variety of cognitive disabilities associated with this disorder. The objective of this study is to test whether a novel drug, AZD-8579, may change and even reverse the symptoms of schizophrenia related with brain chemistry and memory. In a series of three visits, healthy subjects between 21 and 45 years of age are administered either a placebo, a low dose of AZD-8579, or a high dose. The next day, they take in 1/10 the dosage of the anesthetic ketamine of a normal surgery procedure, which induces a dream-like, mock-schizophrenic state. The independent variable is the dosage of AZD-8579, and the dependent variable is the effect after ketamine. The hypothesis is that higher dosages of AZD-8579 will result in reduced schizophrenic symptoms. This study will be conducted at the Connecticut Mental Health Center in affiliation with Yale, headed by Dr. Philip Corlett. Results from this study will provide the potential to treat and possibly reverse the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

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  3. Evan Fox
    Safety and Quality Concerns of Cell Phones

    The purpose of this project is to find a particular polymer that that can re-ionize radioactive material released by cell phones. Re-ionizing is adding electrons to radioactive atoms making them less radioactive. The independent variable will be the material that is used to re-ionizing the radiation. The dependent variable is the amount of radioactive particles passed through the polymer as a radioactive particle. The control will be nothing intercepting the radioactive material. The constants will be a cell phone, the amount of radiation, the device to measure radioactive material, exposure time to radiation, and the thickness and volume of the polymer. It is hypothesized that a silicon based polymer will allow less active radioactive material pass through than a carbon based polymer, as there are more molecules that will re-ionize the radioactive particles. Also, it is believed that a stronger radiation blocking polymer will mildly interfere with quality, but not enough to make it not worth the added safety. A cell phone will be set up with the receptor on the back of the phone, simulating the model of cell phones and there will be a radiation detector by the phone. The amount of radiation will be tested as well as the cellular service. Then, different polymers will be placed on the phone on one side and the amount of radiation will be tested again. Also, the quality of the cellular service will be tested. The test will show the amount the radiation safe material will interfere with service, and how much safer a person would be by using the polymer. The polymer that works best will have their molecular structure identified and it will show what molecular structure a polymer is based on provides the best radiation protection.This will be done with Dr. Lawrence Fox in Poughkeepsie, New York.

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  4. Proposal: BCl-xL in the Brain
    Emily Feng

    BCL-xL is the member of the BCL2 family proteins most commonly found in the brain. BCL-xL enhances synaptic plasticity, is anti-apoptotic , and enhances synaptic transmission. V-ATPase (vacuolar H+-ATPase) is an enzyme that regulates acidity of secretory organelles. In neurons, improved efficiency of vesicles enhances recycling and/or reloading of neurotransmitter may enhance synaptic transmission. BCL-xL’s effects may be explained by an interaction with V-ATPase. Presence of V-ATPase in rat brain was determined using Western Blot analysis (IV: different proteins’ molecular weights, primary antibody used, DV: varying bands on gel). Hypothesized colocalization between BCL-xL and V-ATPase is being determined through coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis (IV: primary antibody, molecular weights, DV: bands seen on gel). If the two are colocalized, inhibition experiments of BCL-xL with an experimentally determined peptide will be carried out; it is hypothesized that inhibition of BCL-xL binding with V-ATPase will decrease synaptic efficiency. This project is being carried out in Dr. Elizabeth Jonas’ lab in the Anlyan Center.

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  5. Joanie

    Effective Information Communication to Teens

    Recently, the iPad, Kindle and other electronic reading devices have started to become popular among readers, particularly young readers. Books and textbooks can now be found electronically and may heighten cost effectiveness. People likely have preference for either print or electronic reading. However, much of society shifting to electronic media. Advocates say that electronic reading is more convenient, but those who prefer printed books complain of screen glare and such negative aspects of electronic reading. The problem to be examined is how print versus electronic reading affects teenagers’ effectiveness in reading. It is hypothesized that if teenagers read electronic material rather than printed material, then they will read more effectively, or “better.” One hundred Amity seniors will be asked to participate in the study. Half of the participants will read a passage electronically, and half will be asked to read the same passage in print. They will then be asked to answer reading comprehension questions about the reading passage. Students’ effectiveness in reading will be measured through the time taken to read the material and the number of correct answers to reading comprehension questions. The participants will then receive a survey asking which method of reading they prefer—electronic or print. The data will be analyzed to find if there is a statistical significance in the effectiveness in the information communication methods to teens. Dr. Hak Joon Kim, professor of information communication library science at SCSU will be mentoring for the duration of the research.

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  6. Zizi Yu
    Investigating the Hygiene Hypothesis: Is early exposure to allergens associated with lower incidence of allergic disease?


    About 6% of U.S. children and 4% of the overall US population are afflicted with some type of food allergy. Peanut and/or tree nut allergy affects about three million Americans, causing up to a hundred deaths a year. According to the hygiene hypothesis, proposed by David P. Strachan in 1989, allergic diseases are caused by inappropriate immunological responses to harmless antigens as a result of living in too sterile of an environment. This study will attempt to determine whether or not there is merit in hygiene hypothesis and explore the idea of being “too clean” in contemporary society. A group of two hundred high school teenagers between the ages of 14 and 18 from the 2010 Yale New-Haven Hospital Summer Youth Volunteer program will be surveyed to gather data about medical history. The independent variables will be factors in the participants’ medical history, such as vaccinations, previous diagnoses, and age of exposure to certain common allergens like nuts, wheat, milk, and dairy. The dependent variable will be the prevalence of food allergies within the participant group. It is hypothesized that early childhood exposure to allergens will stimulate a TH1 immune response and downplay the TH2 response, which will lead to lower incidences of food allergies later in life. The results from this study will be valuable in evaluating and challenging common recommendations of health professionals for children and nursing mothers to avoid allergens as a means of preventing the development of allergies. This research will be conducted under the supervision of Dr. Stephanie C. Eisenbarth at Yale University.

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  7. The Human Element, How Work Efficiency Is Affected When Interacting With Robots
    Thomas Meehan
    Proposal

    Robots are present in our daily lives wherever we go. Whether we like it or not, we are forced to work alongside them in many cases. But some people are uncomfortable working with and trusting these companions, affecting work efficiency. The research question being proposed is “How does working alongside a robotic companion versus a human companion affect work efficiency.” The hypothesis is: Working alongside a robotic companion will allow increased work efficiency. The independent variable is how instruction is administered, either by a robot or a human. The dependent variable the time it takes the participant to complete the task. The control is the time it takes to complete the task with no aid. A possible procedure looks like this: Participants would be asked to navigate a virtual maze. Beforehand each participant will fill out a very brief survey based on their beliefs of whether humans or robots are more trustworthy. Each participant will then be aided by either a human or robot to navigate the maze. Participants will then be timed as they navigate the maze with their partners help. As they are navigating, any significant behaviors will be recorded. After finishing the maze successfully, the participants will again be surveyed with similar questions as before in addition to asking about the experience and whether their opinion changed because of it. A possible location for this research to be conducted is Southern Connecticut State University with Ata Elahi, Ph.D as a possible mentor.

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  8. Zizi Yu

    Correction: participant group will be 200+ high school teenagers in general (mostly from Amity)

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  9. The effect of exercise on the blood vessel

    Preeclampsia is a disorder which only occurs during pregnancy. It affects more than 200,000 women worldwide or 5% of all pregnancies. During the condition, there is a significant amount of protein in the urine and a rise in hypertension. It usually occurs during the 10th week of pregnancy and can be detected when several symptoms show up such as blood pressure elevation. Also, the protein sFlt-1 appears in high concentration in the blood stream. This protein absorbs the PIGF and VEGF. The PIGF and VEGF cannot perform their roles and this leads to preeclampsia. Although the only way to cure preeclampsia is to give birth to the baby, researchers are working on ways of treating this condition. The objective of this research is to find away to counter the effects the sFlt-1. The sFlt-1 also narrows the blood vessel as one of its side effects. One way to counter the narrowing of the blood vessel is through exercise. The research question is, what impact will exercising have on the blood vessel. It is hypothesized that exercise will widen the blood vessel. Exercises such as stretching or yoga might be effective. One way to do this project is to inject pregnant mice with the sFlt-1 and split them into two groups. One group will be exercising while the other group will not be. Then the mice will be examined to see whether or not the blood vessel has narrowed or widened. The independent variable will be if the mice exercise or not. The dependent variable will be the width of the blood vessel. This research project might be done at Yale University under the guidance of Dr. Huang.

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  10. Elliad Dagan
    Comparing and Contrasting the benefits of a Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) against a Diamond Interchange in terms of safety

    For many years the Diamond Interchange has been the urban interchange of choice due to its small size and convenience. However, the more recent interchange called a SPUI is taking over because it is smaller, more efficient, and on paper safer because of less collision points. However, on the road, drivers become confused by the SPUI and that may lead to more danger. The purpose of this experiment is to discover whether or not in reality, the SPUI is safer than a Diamond Interchange. It is hypothesized that the SPUI will be safer because drivers will adapt and become used to this new style of interchange. The independent variable is the type of interchange. The dependent variable is the amount of car collisions and overall safety. The control would be the average number of non interchange car collisions. The needed materials are: 1. historical collision data for a diamond interchange and a SPUI 2. observation of drivers behavior 3. a video camera. The methods for this experiment would be to: 1. gather all of the materials 2. compare and contrast the historical data 3. go to the interchange sites and videotape and record the behavior of the drivers 4. analyze video for safety information 5. collect organize and consolidate all data to create an informed report on the issue. This experiment will be done both off and on the field while consulting with my mentor Mr. Rabih Barakat.

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  11. Star Craft and Roller Coaster Tycoon’s Affect on Time Management Skills

    Software that is fun, while at the same time challenging, inspires students to complete the object of the software, and will motivate them to understand the fundamental logic. This experiment will test the improvement of high school students’ skills after using software that challenges time management. The problem being tested: How will the use of Star Craft and Roller Coaster Tycoon 3 software use affect high school students’ time management skills? The researcher’s hypothesis: Star Craft is a computer game that will improve time management skills of high school students more effectively than Roller Coaster Tycoon because Star Craft has more chances of failure with harder obstacles in the time allotted. The independent variable is the computer software used by the participants (Roller Coaster Tycoon 3 or Star Craft). The dependent variable is how much time management skills of the high school students improve or worsen. The control is the group of participants that take the tests and surveys without using the games. The first step is to obtain participants and to make sure they have access to the two games. The next step is to develop surveys and tests that the participants will take throughout the experiment. Surveys will be used to learn more about the participants and the probability that students will use the software, and the participants will be compared with each other. The results of the tests will be graphed to determine the validity of the hypothesis. My mentor is Mr. Furst from Amity High School.

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  12. Edward Hochman

    Brain Lateralization, Sensation Seeking, and Personality Types in Meditators

    Studies conducted by the University of Maryland’s School of Medicine suggest that meditation helps to alleviate stress, heart disease, and other health complications. The purpose of this experiment is to better understand meditating populations by performing various tests. These tests are intended to provide information concerning the characteristics that distinguish meditators from non-meditators. It is hypothesized that meditators are more right-brained, have lower sensation-seeking scores, and are more introverted than non-meditators. The forty participants will include twenty meditators and twenty non-meditators. A brief survey will be administered to the participants with questions concerning the type of meditation in which they take part, the average duration of their meditation sessions, the number of days they meditate per week, the number of days they exercise per week, sleep and eating habits, education, family relationships, etc… Participants will complete a Myers-Briggs personality test, sensation-seeking scale, and brain lateralization test. Additionally, participants will complete the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), which is an interactive software program that is used to quantify risk-taking behaviors, following a thirty minute resting period. Heart rate will be recorded periodically. The results will be statistically analyzed. This study will be conducted under the mentorship of Dr. Marc I. Rosen of Yale University at a location to be determined.

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  13. Ibuprofen is a common name around households. It is a quick solution to headaches and cold symptoms. Many carry it around with them as a precaution. Yet ibuprofen has an even greater effect on the elderly. Elders with symptoms of MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) struggle as they slowly lose memory retention and fine motor skills. However, new studies suggest that ibuprofen has a positive effect on these minds. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological disease that kills brain cells causing memory loss and severely affects behavior and thinking. Ibuprofen may fight off the disease by decreasing inflammation in the brain. This experiment will put this proposition to trial. In this experiment, I will create a cognitive test and a survey for those above the age of 60. One of these survey questions will ask if they take ibuprofen at a constant rate. I will analyze these results and determine the true correlation between the anti-inflammatory medicine and the deadly disease. The process will include scoring the tests taken by the seniors, then organizing the scores based on their survey questions. It is hypothesized that the result of this study will show that ibuprofen in fact, does fight against Alzheimer’s disease. This will be because of its anti-inflammatory effect, which will prove to reduce the inflammation in the brain, thus reducing the plaque buildup within the brain that causes the disease.

    Possible Location: Griffin Hospital
    Possible Mentor: Mrs. Huang

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  14. Zelun Wang

    The Cove River watershed originates from the Yale Golf Course, travels through a variety of lake, marsh, and residential terrain before emptying into Long Island Sound. The water quality of the upper Cove River watershed is of great importance. The water flows from the Yale Golf Course into the Maltby Lakes, a potable water reservoir. Since fertilizer is applied on the golf course, the water quality of the Maltby lakes may be affected. Data indicating water quality--dissolved oxygen, nitrate, pH and conductivity--will be collected at various locations and compared in relation to time of collection and water temperature. It is hypothesized that nitrate concentration will be higher during the time after fertilizer application. It is also hypothesized that dissolved oxygen concentration will be inversely related with temperature. Furthermore, it is speculated that water quality will be worse at the Golf Course than at the Maltby Lakes, since the marsh in between the golf course and the lakes like reduces the effect of fertilizer. This project is mentored by Professor Scott Graves of SCSU.

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  15. Natural Water Purification in Great Meadows Salt Marsh

    Wetlands serve many important ecological functions, including flood protection, shore stabilization, groundwater recharge, and water purification. Depending on the type of wetland, different environmental benefits exist. Past studies have shown certain types of wetlands in agricultural areas to be effective at filtering out nitrate-nitrogen and other nutrients that can be harmful to humans and can disrupt aquatic food chains. This experiment will be conducted at Great Meadows salt marsh in Stratford, which receives water from Long Island Sound. This is a relatively industrial area known to be polluted. The purpose of this project is to determine how effective the marsh is at reducing nitrogen in the water. This will be tested through a series of water tests. Water samples will be taken from the point at which the Sound flows into the marsh as high tide comes in and as it goes back out. Control samples will be taken from the main body of water that does not flow through the marsh. For each trial, the three water samples will be tested for their nitrogen content. The test results will be evaluated and tested for significance. The hypothesis is that the nitrogen content of the sample taken when the tide goes out will be lower than when it came in. Until recently, the values of wetlands were barely recognized, and it is important that we learn more about them so that these environments can be better preserved.

    *Note: this project idea has been adapted to be carried out at a different location (the Cove River in West Haven) in collaboration with Zelun's proposal.

    Also mentored by Professor Scott Graves of SCSU.

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  16. David Powers
    Periodontal Health and Dietary Intake are Novel Indicators of Inflammatory and Chronic Inflammatory Status

    Throughout the world people are constantly being diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases. It's estimated that by 2030 about 67 million Americans ages 18 or older will have doctor-diagnosed Arthritis. Currently, in the medical field there are no non-invasive, relatively inexpensive methods of looking at inflammation throughout the body. This study focuses on providing a new method of determining the level of inflammation in the body as well as a possible way of lowering it. The first question being investigated is as follows: Is there a correlation between inflammatory disease and periodontal health? It’s hypothesized that if one has inflammatory disease, then they will also have poor periodontal health. The second question being studied is: Is there a correlation between diet and the degree of inflammation in one's gums? It’s predicted that if one has a diet containing "inflammatory foods," they will have more inflamed gums than one who has a diet containing "anti-inflammatory foods." In part one of this study the independent variable is the inflammatory status of participants and in part two it's the diet of participants. In both parts the dependent variable is the periodontal health of participants. This study will take place at Dr. Jeralyn Fantarella’s dental office located in Hamden. Participants will be selected for both parts of this study, but for part one there will be an equal number of participants with a chronic inflammatory disease as without and for part two each participant will fill out a three day dietary recall form. After, both sets of participants' periodontal health will be tested and correlations will be drawn.

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  17. Pauline
    Hypoxia in Ovarian Cancer
    The purpose of this research project is to learn more about ovarian cancer and whether hypoxia influences self-renewal proteins. To accomplish this, hypoxia mimetics will be utilized by way of the two chemicals, desferrioxamine and cobalt chloride (IVs). Initially, Type I ovarian cancer cells will be treated in hypoxic conditions for twenty-four hours, and the control will be no treatment. Next, three different protein fractions will be extracted: total, nuclear, and cytoplasmic fractions. The protein concentrations will be checked at this point, and western blots will confirm the presence or absence of the specific proteins. It is hypothesized that when hypoxic conditions are mimicked using CoCl and DFO, then self-renewal proteins should increase, since hypoxic microenvironments maintain stem-cell renewal in tumors. Results show that hypoxia mimetics successfully stabilized HIF-1 alpha. Likewise, a condition mimicking hypoxia was created successfully. Under hypoxic conditions, because NANOG, OCT4, and cMYC (DVs) are all transcription factors, translocation occurred to the nucleus, proteins became more active, and self-renewal conditions were in fact present. Future research will be conducted under real hypoxic conditions. All research is being conducted at the Yale School of Medicine, and Dr. Ilana Chefetz-Menaker will be mentoring for the duration of the research.

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  18. Acupuncture's Effect of Recalling Traumatic Experiences

    Acupuncture has been in use for thousands of years in China and has been acknowledged by the West as having some medicinal value. Multiple studies on acupuncture have shown that it can reduce pain in patients with chronic illnesses, instill calmness in people with anxiety, and more. The purpose of this experiment is to see the effect that acupuncture has on subjects recalling traumatic experiences. It is hypothesized that a person undergoing acupuncture therapy will have less trouble recalling a traumatic experience (according to a survey which will be created by the researcher). The independent variable in this experiment is the presence of acupuncture therapy, and the dependent variable would be the activity of a participant’s deep limbic system according to pictures produced from a scanning machine. The control in this experiment would be the images of participants that are not undergoing acupuncture therapy. Constants would be temperature of the environment, the environment itself, the machine used to image the participants, and the time of day. The researcher will have 5 participants proceed with acupuncture therapy for a designated amount of time. Afterwards, the participants will enter an imaging machine one at a time. The researcher will ask participants questions that require them to recall traumatic experiences. The participants who are not undergoing acupuncture therapy will then repeat the same procedure as those who did, and the researcher will ask the same questions. Data will be interpreted according to activity of the DLS produced by scanning system as well as by qualitative observations. The research will hopefully be conducted with help of Dr. Robert D. Kerns who is also from Yale.

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  19. Peter Satonick
    Preventing Seizures – The Size of the Brainstem and the Thalamus During Seizures
    Proposal



    A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that usually affects how a person feels or acts for a short or long period of time. Some seizures are hardly noticed while other seizures may cause the person to become unconscious and jerk violently for several minutes. Studies and literature show that in a time of a seizure, the size of the brainstem and the thalamus will become smaller in size because during depression, the size of the hippocampus shrinks. Therefore during a seizure, the brainstem and thalamus will shrink because the thalamus forms an important part of networks underlying seizures and the brainstem is attached to the spinal cord which is twisted during a seizure. Previous studies prove that symptoms of seizures can result in brain damage; therefore, the researcher believes that symptoms of seizures will also change the size of the thalamus and brainstem. To test this, fMRIs of patients without seizure symptoms will be observed, as well as, patients with seizure symptoms, and patients who have had seizures. The researcher will group all fMRIs of males and females will be grouped in different groups. With the help a mentor, the study will measure the size of the thalamus and brainstem in each fMRI by using measuring software undefined at this time. If the volume of the thalamus and brainstem change, the patient will know ahead of time that he/she is in danger of having a seizure and can try to protect themselves before the seizure occurs. This study will be completed with Robert Wickham from the Yale School of Medicine of Neurology.

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  20. Jordan Henck

    What are the effects of a person's size on the types of Judo throws performed?

    Different judo players use different throws to achieve the same goal. Their goal is to win. To win in judo, a player needs to be thrown on their back by the other player. The selected throw is based on the players’ preferences. Therefore, this study will examine what is the effect of a person's size on the selection of their preferred Judo throws. It is predicted that as the weight class of a player reduces, the player will more often use the following throws: Drop seoi-nage, Kouchi-gari and, Sode-tsuri-komi-goshi. It is predicted that as the weight class of a player increases, the player will more often use the following throws: Ura-nage, Harai-goshi and, Soto-makikomi. Since Momentum is directly related to the mass and velocity, momentum generally favors heavyweight players. Thus, the predicted heavyweight throws use more of a twisting action as opposed to an arc by lightweights. The twisting action enables a heavy thrower to use their mass to influence the throw with minimal change in velocity while the arc helps lighter players maximize momentum by increasing the throw velocity with minimal influence of their mass. The Independent variable is the size of judo player and the dependent variable is the throw used by the player. The researcher will need to analyze videos from the 2008 Olympics identifying which throws are performed in each of the 3 major weight classes. Subsequently, video analysis of experienced heavyweight and lightweight Judo players performing the most often used throws by Olympic players will be performed. Video analysis will required video taping the throws, digitizing the videos, and calculating velocity and momentum for each of the throws. This experiment will require 2008 Olympics videos, a video camera, experienced judo players, video digitizing software, and a tape measure. This experiment will be done with the help of Dr. Rodney T. Imamura. This project will be done at my house and the local dojo.

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  21. Jacob Laser
    The ideal position in a laser sailboat
    Researchers trying to design the best possible sails can use combinations of twisted flow wind tunnels, small scale models and computer simulations using a derivation of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes or (RANS) method. In this study a twisted flow wind tunnel testing and RANS method modeling to find flaws and strong points in the design of the laser sail boat will be applied. The laser is a small, one man boat. The RANS model will also show the effect, if any, of a pilot’s body of the wind flow around the sail; the weight and proportions of the dummy are yet to be determined. Several wind tunnel tests will be done with a dummy in the boat at true to life position. The data will be collected using ribbons and barometers to show air current and pressure. Then the data from this will be used to create an RANS model to show wind flow and air pressures. Because there are many possible positions for the sailor to be in I will conduct tests and build models of the dummy at many positions. The study will be looking for the optimum body position in heavy, breezy, and light wind. These tests are planned to take place over the summer of 2010.

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  22. Jennifer Dalecki
    Correlation between ADHD Subtype/Symptom Severity with Aggression
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder often identified by hyperactivity and corresponding periods of aggression. ADHD, in most cases, is diagnosed in children under the age of seven and varies from case to case in terms of disease subtype and symptom severity. The aim of this study is to characterize aggression and its relation to co-mordbity, ADHD subtype, and symptom severity in ADHD youngsters. Furthermore, this study seeks to ascertain whether reactive aggression, or aggression performed in response to provocation, and impulsive aggression, or aggression designed to achieve an objective beyond physical violence, is more prevalent than proactive aggression in an ADHD sample. Using a sample of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and control counterparts without ADHD, will be classified in accordance with characteristics such demographics, psychiatric diagnosis, overt aggression severity, proactive and reactive aggression severity, and ADHD symptom severity. It is hypothesized that children with ADHD will be more aggressive than the control counterparts. Participants with non-anxiety co-morbid disorders are expected to be more aggressive than ADHD children without such co-morbidity. ADHD youngsters can also be expected to demonstrate significantly more reactive than proactive forms of aggression across all co-morbid diagnoses.

    Dr. Kaplan
    UCONN

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  23. The Relationship Between Temperature and Survival of the Larval Tunicate Styela clava

    A tunicate is any of various chordate marine animals of the subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata having a cylindrical or globular body enclosed in a tough outer covering and including the sea squirts and salps. The tunicate Styela clava generally lives in a region according to water temperatures, which must annually never go above or below the 12-23°C range for adults to survive. The purpose of this study is to find the extent of Styela clava’s possible reproduction range by studying growth at different temperatures. The research question is, “Will larval Styela clava survive and reach maturity if they are exposed to temperatures of 10°C, 15°C, and 25°C?” The hypothesis for this experiment is that Styela clava will only reach maturity at the 15°C temperature because if the adults can barely survive at the higher temperatures, then the larva will have no chance of survival. This study will be a continuation of a previous study where the relationship between food abundance and survival of adult Styela clava was researched. The amount of food that was found to be the optimal amount for the species, which is 40 drops of Phytofeast twice a day, will be used as a constant in this experiment. The tunicates will be manually spawned (mixing eggs and sperm) as well as naturally spawned, and then their growth will be measured (mm) using the grids on the settlement plates until they reach maturity. Ways to measure mass are being researched. This project will be completed at the University of New Haven with Prof. Carmela Cuomo.

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  24. Andrew Chen
    Chronic liver disease is the broad term that describes different diseases of the liver such as jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer to name a few. This is usually caused by numerous reasons as each disease has its own causes. While there are no true cures to liver disease except for a liver transplant, many drugs are currently being researched and tested. The researcher is testing the effect of milk thistle extracts on the prevention of chronic liver disease. Milk Thistle has been proven to have protective effects on the liver, as well as improving the liver’s regenerative process. Milk Thistle extracts also have been proven to lower the toxin contents of the liver (such as toluene or xylene) and to repair damage of the liver. How then does milk thistle work on patients without chronic liver disease? Are there any effects on the prevention of chronic liver disease? Since milk thistle has had such positive effects on the liver, it is hypothesized that it will prevent chronic disease. To test this, the researcher will have the participants with the possibility of liver disease, such as drinkers of alcohol take extracts from blessed milk thistle after the course of a month, and then have the participants take a liver function test, using with the enzymes ALT or AST. This will show the prevalence of any liver disease.

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  25. The Effect of Fertilization and Environmental Factors on Water Quality in the Cove River Watershed

    The Cove River watershed originates in the Yale Golf Course and travels through a variety of lake, marsh and residential topography before reaching Long Island Sound in West Haven. Since the watershed includes a potable water reservoir, the overall water quality is of great interest and importance. It is likely that the water quality of at least part of the watershed is affected by the application of fertilizers on the golf course. Water samples will be collected and tested using Vernier probes at several locations below the golf course for dissolved oxygen, temperature, nitrate, pH, and conductivity on a weekly basis within an hour of solar noon. These measurements are the dependent variables and will be compared in relation to the independent variables of time, location, and other environmental factors. Each location will be given an MUC field guide classification in order to better interpret results. It is hypothesized that water quality will improve or recover from any nitrate pollution after flowing through marsh areas, as compared to water quality tests from the golf course area. It is also hypothesized that dissolved oxygen concentration will be inversely related to temperature. This project will be mentored by Professor Scott Graves of SCSU.

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  26. Zhang Liu
    The Relationship between the presence of LGBTQ literature in school curricula and the Levels of LGBTQ bullying
    In this experiment, it will be determined whether the presence of LGBTQ literature correlates with levels of LGBTQ bullying.
    Issues surrounding LGBTQ students such as bullying, student suicides, and school bullying prevention policies have generated much discussion. One issue is the use of LGBTQ literature in school curricula. Many parents argue that the exposure to LGBTQ material is inappropriate for their children and support censorship of similar material, such as in the 2004 Massachusetts case where parents influenced the removal of LGBTQ literature from the school curriculum. Others, such as GLSEN advocate the use of LGBTQ literature as a way of improving LGBTQ tolerance. The National Association of Middle Schools currently implements a plan to decrease bullying with bullying-related literature as its centerpiece. The independent variable will be the presence of LGBTQ literature in school curricula and the dependent variable will be the level of LGBTQ bullying. School systems across Connecticut, with various populations of LGBTQ students, will be surveyed. They will be asked to answer questions such as whether they use LGBTQ literature in their curricula, if so which ones? They will also be asked to provide a GLSEN approved school climate assessment. Also, since most anti-bullying books are implemented in elementary or middle school, high school students who have graudated from those elementary/middle school anti-bullying programs will be surveyed to determine their tolerance to LGBTQ peers.
    Mentor-unknown

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  27. Tanay Lathia
    How does changing Nitrogen content in algae growth affect the lipid yield?
    Proposal

    Right now there is an energy crisis and the world needs alternative, renewable, and clean energy. One possible solution is bio-diesel fuel. Since it would provide clean fuel, is easy to harvest, and is not a food supply, algae is one organism that meets these requirements. This study will determine whether lowering the amount of Nitrogen used in growing algae will increase the amount of lipids the algae produces. Based on previous research, it has been found that when algae are starved of nutrients, they use lipids as a substitute for the nutrients. The independent variable of this study is the amount of nitrogen given to the algae while growing. The dependent variable is the concentration of lipids. The first step in completing this study is collecting samples of algae. The algae will be grown with varying amounts of nitrogen in the medium that the algae are grown in. Once the growing process is complete, a small sample of the algae will be stained with Nile Red, which is a dye that stains lipid globules red. A different method is to use a strong microscope to find vacuoles in the cell. This study aims optimal growing conditions for algae, to produce the highest lipid content, which in turn will produce the most amount of bio-diesel fuel. The proposed research will be conducted either at school or in a controlled environment at my house, with guidance from Dr. Jordan Peccia, a professor at Yale.

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  28. The Human Element, How Work Efficiency Is Affected When Interacting With Intelligent Robots/ Computers
    Thomas Meehan
    Proposal

    Robots are present in our daily lives wherever we go. Whether we like it or not, we are forced to work alongside them in many cases. But some people are uncomfortable working with and trusting these companions, affecting work efficiency. The research question being proposed is “How does working alongside a robotic companion versus a human companion affect work efficiency.” The hypothesis is: Working alongside a robotic companion will allow increased work efficiency. The independent variable is how instruction is administered, either by a robot or a human. The dependent variable the time it takes the participant to complete the task. The control is the time it takes to complete the task with no aid. A possible procedure looks like this: Participants would be asked to navigate a maze. Beforehand each participant will fill out a very brief survey based on their beliefs of whether humans or robots are more trustworthy and how comfortable they are with taking instructions, etc. Each participant will then be aided by either a human or robot to navigate the maze (possibly in the cafeteria)
    . Participants will then be timed as they navigate the maze blindfolded with their partners help. As they are navigating, any significant behaviors will be recorded, such as distrust, removing the blindfold, etc. After finishing the maze successfully, the participants will again be surveyed with similar questions as before in addition to asking about the experience and whether their opinion changed because of it. A possible location for this research to be conducted is Amity Regional Senior High School with Ata Elahi, Ph.D as a possible mentor.

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  29. Brian Liang
    Will ants favor Myrmecophytes when presented with non-Myrmecophytes also?
    Many ants, such as the carpenter ant, are attracted to trees with hollow roots, or Myrmecophytes. Recently, in the Amazon, Douglas Yu of the University of East and Glenn Shepard of Sao Paulo University have discovered that the ants there have also infested trees that do not have hollow roots, or non-Myrmecophytes. These ants have adapted to this change by simply burrowing into the roots to make them hollow. The independent variable in this experiment is what type of root (hollow or non-hollow) is placed in the ant farm. The constant will be what type of ant inhabits the ant farm. The dependent variable will be how many ants pass through or come into contact with the root. It is hypothesized that if ants are able to adapt to the non-hollow roots to the point in which they can survive as well or almost as well as if they had burrowed into a Myrmecophyte’s root, then the ants will not express favoritism toward one type of root. To carry out this experiment, I will first place black or red wood ants into an ant farm. The ants will be allowed to “live” in their new environment for one day. Then, a hollow root cut from a Myrmecophyte will be placed into the ant farm for one day. Then, the root will be taken out, along with any ants on it. The ants will be left without any roots in the ant farm for one day to dissipate any scents of the root. Then, a non-hollow root cut from a non-Myrmecophyte will be placed into the ant farm for one day. Using a 24 hour camera, the ants’ reaction to the insertion of these roots will be filmed. Numerical data, or how many ants infested each root, will be recorded and analyzed by reviewing the tape.

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  30. Sharing a Secret: Interactions
    Between a Child, Robot, and Adult
    Jenny Liu

    Preschool children (4 to 6 years of age) are just developing the cognitive skills associated with the ability to keep a secret. This project investigates if preschoolers are as likely to share a secret with a humanoid robot as they are with a human adult. At the beginning of each study, the primary investigator shares a unique secret with a child. The child then plays a game of follow-the-leader with a robot. During a break in the follow-the-leader game, the child is prompted with five levels of questions to determine if and when he or she will share the secret. Then, the procedure is repeated with the other agent, an adult. The order of agents is alternated to eliminate any precedence effect. The independent variable in this study is the type of agent which interacts with the child (robot or adult), while the dependent variable is the level of prompting at which the child shares the secret. Previous research shows that children are more likely to respond to peer-like puppets in secret-telling tasks. Thus, since the robot may appear more like a peer than an adult authority figure, it is hypothesized that a young child would be more willing to share a secret with the robot than with the adult. This study will be a novel contribution to whether robots would be helpful in abuse therapy for children. The primary location of this study is Professor Scassellati’s Social Robotics Lab at Yale University, and the children will be run at their individual preschools and daycares across southern Connecticut.

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  31. Eeman Abbasi
    The Effects of a High Protein Diet on Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, and Cognitive Activity

    Studies in the field of nutrition have shown that foods with high amounts of protein, depending on the protein being considered, have either a positive or negative effect on the body. Proteins such as meat and eggs have been shown to elevate blood pressure levels. Proteins such as nuts and fish have been shown to increase cognitive activity. The purpose behind this experiment is to identify which foods with high levels of protein effectively reduce the levels of high blood pressure and pulse and increase cognitive activity. Foods with high levels of protein include: meat, beans, eggs, nuts, fish, and dairy. The controlled variables of the experiment are the music that all of the participants will listen to, the amount of time that they listen to the music, and the method in which the blood pressure levels, pulse rate and cognitive activity are found. The independent variable is the amount of protein given to each subject. The dependent variable would be the blood pressure levels, pulse rate and cognitive activity of each participant. It is hypothesized that if the protein diet consisted of nuts and dairy products blood pressure levels and pulse rate will decrease, but cognitive activity will increase. There is evidence to suggest that the effects on the blood pressure levels, pulse rate, and cognitive activity will be greater with a high protein diet, as compared to a balanced diet. Participants will be asked about the foods that they have consumed before being tested and the amounts, if possible volunteers will be asked to fast. The blood pressure levels and pulse rate of all of the participants will be found before the study. Participants will also take a simple test to determine their cognitive ability. Half of the participants will eat a determined amount of protein, consisting of various nuts and dairy products. The other half of participants will eat a balanced snack of fruits, grains, protein, etc. Volunteers will then listen to some soft music for five minutes. After 2.5 minutes the blood pressure levels, pulse rate, and cognitive activity levels will be found. After 5 minutes the blood pressure levels, pulse rate, and cognitive activity levels will be found again. The data will be charted into a graph and will be compared statistically

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  32. Shaunak Pandit
    Testing Hydroponics on Tropical Plants with Temperature Controlled Water

    Hydroponics is the science of growing plants in mineral water and a medium. Having local fruit available will save money on shipping tropical commodities like mangoes and coffee from Brazil and by using less petroleum products. Controlling the temperature of the water for tropical plants might help them grow in Connecticut, which is the focus of this study. It is hypothesized that the heated water that the tropical plants are in will allow the plants to grow in non-tropical areas. The Independent variable is the temperature of the water that the plants are in and the Dependent variable is how much the plant grows. To conduct the experiment, set up all three of the hydroponic systems according to the instructions given and maintain it accordingly to the instructions. Fill one with 90°F another 80°F and leave the last one at room temperature (±70°). Attach a heating system that maintains the water temperature. Put the plants into the system. Every week for 5 weeks measure the height of the plant. At the end of the time frame evaluate the data. The project will be executed at the CT Agriculture Research Station in New Haven. A possible mentor for this experiment would be Sharon Douglas at the CT Agriculture Research Station. She is the head of the department of Plant Pathology and Ecology.

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  33. Effect of Music on Tasks
    This study will look into whether music can change the results of people on certain tasks. There have been several studies done on this topic, but they all yield different results. Many students claim that music helps with work, but others say it is a distraction from the task. This project will look further into this. The question is: Does the type of music one listens to while working on a certain task? The control will be working with no music. For the independent variable, there will be different types of music (classical, dance, heavy metal). The dependent variable will be how long one takes to complete a task while listening to a certain type of music. The hypothesis is that listening to different types of music will improve performance on tasks. For the procedure, have fifteen participants. Make up or find seven different word searches with six words each. Have each participant take one of the seven word searches in as complete silence as possible, with no music. Each partaker must use a stopwatch to time themselves from start to finish. Have all participants complete a different word search than the one they originally took while listening to classical music. Each person should use a stopwatch to time themselves from start to finish. Repeat the completing and timing people for dance music, then again for heavy metal music. Compare each participant’s time to complete the word search without music to complete the word search with different genres.

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  34. Ben Staniewicz

    The Effect of Metals and Alloys Annealed at Different Temperatures and Their Resistance to Fatigue

    Proposal
    Metals and alloys that have been annealed are well known for their abilities to be more ductile and flexible. Fatigue is when a fracture occurs due to constant loading and unloading. This can lead to damage to a material that may be catastrophic when occurring in essential components such as aircraft or buildings, as failure may cause complete destruction of it and possibly collapse in buildings or aircraft crashing. Finding a way to better avoid fatigue could lead to large sums of money saved or even human lives. The research question being asked is “Can annealing metals lessen the rate at which metals fatigue?” It is hypothesized that since the annealed materials are more ductile, they would fracture after longer periods of time of loading than the non-annealed materials. The independent variables are the types (Aluminum, copper, brass, and bronze) and temperatures of metals used. (500˚C and Non-annealed) The dependent variable is the number of repeated bends (at a 45˚ angles) before fracture occurs. The controls are the non-annealed materials. All materials will be the same size and shape. Procedure: Every Sample would be bent at a 45˚ angle. This would be repeated by bending them 45˚ in one direction to the same measure in the opposing direction. The number of bends would be recorded up until it had fractured. This process would repeat for every metal and alloy, multiple times. This experiment will be conducted either in school or at home.

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  35. Jen Maruna
    Developing a Photographic Memory
    Memory is the ability to retain and recall information. There are three types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term. There is also photographic memory, whereby a person can remember information clearly and retain it for a long period of time. People with photographic memories can memorize entire books and also remember what they were wearing a month ago. There are people who are born with a photographic memory, but studies have shown that it is also possible to develop. This experiment will investigate whether the average person is capable of developing a photographic memory within two months. The independent variable is a series of memory games to help improve memory. There will be 3 categories measured: object detail, literature, and peripheral vision. The detail memory game will test the person on color, patterns, and object recall that people don’t normally pay attention to. Literature will help improve how long it takes them to memorize a paragraph that they are not familiar with. The peripheral vision will help them improve how much they can see and memorize at a time. The dependent variables are the scores on the tests that the person will take each week to show how well they memorize. The control will be a person who only takes the tests and doesn’t do the memory improvement games. The constant will be the amount of time each person has to take the tests and to play the games. It is hypothesized that if the person dedicates 15 minutes each day to work on developing their memory then, within 2 months, the person should be able to memorize things faster and hold on to it for longer.

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  36. Cindy Guo
    The Effects of Facebook on Teens
    Addiction is a term described as a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity. Facebook is a worldwide social network service and website that was launched on February 4, 2004. There are about 500 million active users on Facebook today. Teenagers not only use Facebook on their laptops or computers, they can also use is on their phones or Ipod Touches. This study is conducted to find out how addicted can a teenage Facebook user be and what makes them prone to use it? This study will be tested on at least 50 teenagers between ages 13 and 15. The independent variable of this project would be the type of things they do on Facebook such as games, chat, or browsing etc. The dependent variables are the number of daily visits on Facebook and how long they use it to play games, chat, or browsing. The hypothesis is that if teenage Facebook users use Facebook, then they can be addicted to it for at least 3 hours of each day of the week and use it to mostly chat with their friends or wall-post on their friend’s walls. First, a survey must be created to include the questions that are targeted for this project. There must be at least 50 teenage kids who take this survey. For all seven days of the week, they must log how many hours they were on Facebook and what activities they pursued on Facebook. This experiment will be conducted with students from Amity High School.

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  37. Jennifer Zhu
    Do Chemicals change the colors of a plant?

    Past research has shown that in many cases climate affects animals in various ways, and in many cases climate does affect animals. It has been proven that the Polar Regions have started to warm up due to the fact of global warming, which has led to the ice in the Polar Region melting away. This effect has hit the animals and plants harshly, and the plants of the Polar Region to change their adaptation to heat. The question behind the conducted experiment will be similiar, yet different: Does adding a chemical, such as Lysol, slowly into the plant’s soil affect the color of the plant? The independent variables will be: the amount of Lysol put in. The dependent variable will be the color of the plants. The time span for the selected experiment will be exactly one month. During the course of this experiment, it is hypothesized that if the change in the factor is done slowly, then the plant will change within the time limit. The procedure will be carried out by buying a set (4) of grown plants (all of the same species) and splitting them in half, as one will be the control group, and the other two will be the tested ones. Then, for the next 4 weeks, the researchers intend to slowly insert Lysol into the plant, and chart their data. The experiment will be conducted in a greenhouse.

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  38. Ben Feola
    Which type of personality type using the Myers-brigs personality types are more or less prone to risk taking behavior?

    The propose of this project is to discover which type of people are more or less prone to indulge in risk taking behavior to possible help teens in school. It is well known that teens indulge in risk taking behavior more than adults, if it is known which personality type is more prone to taking risks they can be watched more carefully in school. The independent variable in this experiment is the personality type of the person (using the Myers-Briggs personality test). The dependant variable will be how the score on the risk taking test and how far they choose to go with the double or nothing bets. The control is how that personality type is defined. The constants will be the same risk-taking test, personality test . It is hypothesized that the personality type ENFP will be the most willing to take risks and the personality type that will be least willing will be ISTJ. First a wide and diverse group of participants will be needed to try and get at least a few examples of each personality type. They will than take the test to discover their personality type. The participants will than receive 1 dollar and will be asked if they want to bet that dollar in a “double or nothing” with either dice or a coin. Depending on how far the participant decides to go with the “double or nothing” will determine how willing they are to take risks. They will than take an online test that measures risk taking to back up the results of the double or nothing with well known proven results. Each personality type will have at least 3 participants to further solidify the results. The participants will be teens in Amity High school.

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  39. Helen Zhao
    Uncovering the secret to manipulation

    It is well known how effective the power of words and subtle body hints can be during communication. Psychological manipulators often use these techniques to feel in control and powerful or to use people to further their own cause. The purpose of this experiment is to identify which method is most useful in manipulating people to get a desired outcome. This experiment will be conducted with a group of high school teenagers between the ages of 14 and 18. There will be two groups identified within this experiment-words and body language-and further subcategories within the categories. Surveys and indirect emphasis on key words will be used to test the effectiveness of words on manipulation. Before testing body language, the subjets will be given a survey to determine their habits and what they are normally inclined to do or not to do. To test the effectiveness of body language on manipulation, subjects will be observed for a period of time in a social setting to understand their interaction with people and common types of body language used. Then, familiar forms of body language will be used to manipulate the thinking of the subject into doing a task that otherwise would not have happened, such as lending money or sharing food.

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  40. The Correlation Between a Change In Blood Pressure and the Illusion of Stress

    By: Izabela Banka

    According to past research, there is evidence to support the idea that a psychological phenomenon exists whereby when a person’s brain is exposed to diseased pictures, the immune system is prompted to work harder. The effects of possible stress on blood pressure may be similar when a person views a video of a tragic incident like a plane crash. The purpose of this study is to consider whether a participant’s blood pressure will respond to the illusion of stress (via video) the same way it responds to an authentic stressful situation? It is hypothesized that in response to watching a video of a plane crash, participant’s blood pressure will change. The independent variable will be participant exposure to a "stressful situation". The dependent variable will be the change in the blood pressure (as measured with aneroid monitor) of the participant over time. The blood pressure of the participant will be measured five minutes before watching the video. The researcher will have to make sure that the blood pressure is normal in order to carry on. The volunteer will then proceed to watch the video of the plane crash. Halfway through the viewing, the BP will again be measured. Once has ended, the blood pressure of the participant will be taken. Five minutes after the video has ended, the blood pressure will be taken one last time. Once the experimental group has finished, it will then be proceeded to carry out the same process with the control group, thus the “stressful situation” will be eliminated and replaced with a video of white noise. All data will then be recorded and graphed. For data analysis, the researcher will use data tables, graphs, and statistical analysis.

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  41. The Relationship Between Pain Relievers and Illness

    By: Samantha Austin

    Pain relievers are shown to interact with cells, specifically, the nervous system and brain, to inhibit pain perception. Danger to a patient may be imminent if antibiotics and other pain killers suppress the immune system. Medications that are commercially sold for colds and fevers may not be entirely necessary since they tend to only ease symptoms such as coughing. This project will attempt to find the affect of pain relievers on the human body’s immune system. How many times the individual has taken commercial pain killers (such as Ibuprofen, Aleve, Advil) would act as an independent variable. How many times the individual has gotten sick would be the dependant variable. The purpose of this study would be to find the correlation between these two variables. It is hypothesized that if there is an excessive use of commercially sold pain killers, then they will decrease the ability of the human body’s immune system’s ability fight off viruses. The procedure would be to gather volunteers. Then, create a one or two page survey with questions asking about the subject’s use of commercial pain killers, when they last became ill, and more. Then distribute these surveys to the volunteers. Then, gather data and evaluate subject’s responses. Do this by making graphs that show the amount of pain relievers taken in correspondence to the amount of illness the person has experienced. The final step is to present it to the scientific community.

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  42. The Affect of Age On Stress
    By: Izabela Banka

    According to past research, there is evidence to support the idea that the body enters a “fight or flight” stage promptly after exposure to a stressful situation resulting in, among other things, a raise in blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study is to consider whether a participant’s age will affect the amount the BP will raise during stress response (via video). The question is: During a stressful situation, is there a higher blood pressure in older people (40-45) than in younger people(10-15)? It is hypothesized that yes, a stressful situation induces a higher blood pressure in older people than in younger people. The independent variable will be participant exposure to a "stressful" situation. The dependent variable will be the amount of increase in BP (as measured with aneroid monitor). The BP will be measured right before the older participant watches the video. Once the video has ended the blood pressure will be taken one last time. This will be performed 19 more times with participants of the same age group. Perform this 20 times with participants in the younger age group. Several constants include: the same video being shown, showing the video in the same room, the BP will be measured the same way for each participant, the older participants are all 40 to 45 years of age, the younger participants are all 10-15 years of age. All data will then be recorded and graphed. For data analysis, the researcher will use data tables, graphs, and statistical analysis.

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  43. Edward Hochman
    Acute Effects of Exercise on Risk-Taking

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between exercise and risk-taking behaviors in adolescents. Due to the nature of the investigator’s previous findings, it is hypothesized that adolescents will take more risks after exercising than after resting. Participants will consist of male and female students from Amity High School between ages thirteen and eighteen. Participants will complete the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), an interactive software program that quantifies risk-taking, following a fifteen-minute exercise condition and a fifteen-minute rest condition. The exercise condition will consist of fifteen minutes of running on a treadmill, while the rest condition will entail of fifteen minutes of controlled rest. Participants will also complete the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale as a baseline measure of their risk-taking tendencies. They will also answer general questions related to age, gender, days they exercise per week, athletic involvement, etc... Participants will be compensated based on their BART results in order to give them incentive to take testing seriously. Heart rate will be recorded periodically. A paired t-test will used in order to statistically analyze the data.

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  44. Elliad Dagan
    Comparing and Contrasting the benefits of a Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) against a Diamond Interchange in terms of safety

    For many years the Diamond Interchange has been the urban interchange of choice due to its small size and convenience. However, the more recent SPUI is taking over because it is smaller, more efficient, and on paper safer because of less collision points. However, on the road, drivers become confused by the SPUI and that may lead to danger. The purpose of this experiment is to discover whether or not the SPUI is safer than the Diamond Interchange. It is hypothesized that the SPUI will be safer because drivers will adapt and become used to the interchange. The independent variable is the type of interchange. The dependent variable is the amount of car collisions and overall safety. The control would be the average number of car collisions in the area. The materials are: 1. historical collision data for three diamond interchanges and SPUIs 2. observation of drivers behavior at the site locations 3. permission to observe the area 4. a video camera 5. A SPUI and a diamond interchange. The methods are: 1. gather all of the materials 2. compare and contrast the historical data 3. go to the interchange sites and videotape and record the behavior of the drivers at the locations of previous collisions4. analyze video for safety information 5. collect organize and consolidate all data to create an informed report on the issue. This experiment will be done both off and on the field while consulting with my mentor Transportation Supervising Engineer, Mr. Rabih Barakat.

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