Course Description

Science Research Program – Grades 9, 10, 11, 12

Full Year – Level H: Incoming freshman and sophomore students must apply for admission to this program in January of the prior academic year. Acceptance into the program will be based on a science teacher recommendation, a written essay, and excellent academic grades.

This is an ongoing program that is taken in conjunction with the student’s regular science course. There are several tiers to the program. During Year 1 students learn the components of scientific research including the scientific method and apply these concepts in various settings including designing and conducting an authentic science research project and communicating results by participation in at least one local science fair. Students also explore various applications of science topics through field trips, guest speakers and class projects. Advanced students (Years 2-4) select their science research topic, locate an out-of-school mentor (either in industry or at a local university) and compete in a variety of science fairs including the CT State Science Fair, Southern CT Invitational Science and Engineering Fair (SCSEF) and the CT Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (CT JSHS). Advanced students pursue their selected research in depth, perform statistical analysis and compete at a number of local and/or national science fairs and competitions. In Years 2, 3, and 4 students are grouped together in a non-traditional classroom setting and are required to meet individually outside of class with their Science Research Instructor biweekly to review individual goals and assess progress. All students participate in the culminating annual activity, Amity’s Science Symposium.

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

2013 Year 1 SRP Abstracts

Please post your most current abstract here (250 words max) including (but not limited to):

Your name
Title of your project

Research Question and/or Hypothesis


  1. Video games have been very popular among people of all ages since the day they were released. Although, video games are often seen as having little to no benefit by many parents. The purpose of the experiment is to show that video games may have some benefits. It is hypothesized that if a person has a high video game score, then they will have a higher hand-eye coordination score as well. All of the participants in the study have played video games previously to participating in the study. All of the participants have previous experience with games, although, the participants do not have any experience with the game, Planetside 2, itself. (Planetside 2 is an online game made by Sony Online Entertainment) Each participant had 1 hour to explore the game, learn the controls and get a feel for the game, and then they played for 1 hour. Once completed, they participated in a second test, showing their hand-eye coordination. During the second study, the participants each stood 3 feet away from a flat wall and threw a tennis ball against it. They had only 30 seconds to get as many complete throws and catch as possible. The data was recorded and the averages were found. There was a positive correlation in the data. A few more calculations were made to find the average amount of Planetside experience to 1 complete throw and catch in the hand-eye coordination test. In the end, the data did not support the hypothesis. Only 4 out of the 5 participants scored above average.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability which impairs social communication and behavior. Not only does the child have difficulty, but parents of ASD individuals have difficulty finding and trusting others to take care of their child, rarely getting any free time. Southern Connecticut State University has created a program which assists parents and their babysitters to become competent caregivers for their autistic children. The program is designed to allow training at various locations throughout CT which includes a free 2 hr. training seminar for caregivers. At the seminar, parents and caregivers of autistic children received a SIT Kit containing various materials for taking care of an autistic child. Participants took a pre- and post-survey to analyze how much information was known and gained. Survey answers were scored on a likert scale of 1-5, 1 having no knowledge, and 5 having complete knowledge. Results show that the most significant increase between the pre- and post- evaluations were the knowledge of care-taking tools. In contrast, the session had a small impact on teaching the participants about general knowledge of Autism. The surveys showed that the participants did gain knowledge, averaging a higher 0.8 scale rating in the post-evaluation. Pre and Post tests were statistically evaluated using a t-test. Calculations showed that the p value was 6.2011679E-5, proving a significant difference in the overall pre and post averages. This suggested that the training provided the confidence necessary for the babysitter/caregiver to feel more capable when left alone w/an autistic child. Future studies include continuation of data collection in the near future.

  3. Harika Lingareddy

    The Effects of Types of Information on the Ability to Remember

    There are many techniques which help the student while studying. Among those techniques, learning visually or learning with auditory information are the most common ways. The research question in this study is: which helps your memory more, visual or audio information. The purpose and motivation behind this study is to help students achieve in academics. Many students don’t know how to study for their exams and this experiment might guide them to achieving good test scores. The study will help the students to understand what method of information is more effective for their memory. The study was conducted with human participants between the ages of 10-20. The participants received the visual information for five minutes. Then, they get a break for ten minutes, and after, they were asked to write down what words they remember. Then, the participants were given a survey asking them how they remembered the information. After fifteen minutes, the same thing was done, but with audio information. The hypothesis was supported whereby visual information was better remembered than audio. The results show that 8/10 people remembered more words from visual stimulation than audio. If the students know whether audio or visual information is more effective for them, they can choose the way which will benefit them when studying for exams. Studying properly is very important in education. Also, it can help teachers by letting them know which way is more effective and helpful to the individual students.

  4. Helen Ruckes
    How Yoga Affects Test Scores

    Many students spend hours studying but do not always absorb the information. This can be hazardous to the student’s test or quiz score, GPA, college choice, and eventually, even their career choice. Students may realize that this is a problem, but do not know what to do to solve it. The motivation behind this study is to help students excel in school, improve memory in older people, and even help improve physical fitness. It is hypothesized that people who engage in fifteen minutes of yoga will subsequently score higher on an evaluation than someone who doesn't exercise. The independent variable is the yoga activity. The dependent variables are the test scores. All participants will review a study guide for five minutes. The control group, sat for 15 minutes, while the other participants engaged in fifteen minutes of yoga. A twenty minute test was administered afterward. This test included a one page algebra 1 test with ten questions on it. Past studies including “How Exercise Can Jog Your Memory” (preformed at department of psychology and neuroscience at Dartmouth College) shows that people who exercised did better on the memorization test than people who did not exercise. This may be linked to show that yoga will increase possible test scores; however the data that was collected shows that yoga actually decreased the possible test scores because the control group had an average of 42.5% of the questions correct and the yoga group had an average of 35% of the questions correct. There were many sources of error, but the most significant source of error was that there were only eight participants and the groups weren’t large enough to collect substantial data.

  5. Grayson Arndt- How Language Can Affect a Student's Performance
    The way that people deliver information can be completely changed for the better of society. At the moment, people deliver information in many different ways. However, this experiment is designed to research whether this delivery can be changed to accommodate people so that they can use the information they have attained in a more effective manner. Dr. Leary, a renowned psychologist of his time, has done 15 studies over the past seven years and found that self-compassionate people are happier overall. The question that was asked was: does telling a student that an assessment is easy or hard change the outcome? It was hypothesized that if you tell a group of students that an assessment will be easy, then they will do better. This was hypothesized because it was thought that maybe if other people were compassionate towards someone then they would be happier and achieve higher goals. Eleven freshmen level I biology students were gathered and all watched a short video. The students were then split up into 3 groups. All groups were given the same assessment. Group A was told nothing about the assessment. Group B was told the assessment is difficult. Group C was told the assessment was easy. Each group took a 10 question multiple-choice assessment. The mean of all of the group’s scores were found and compared to each other. Group A scored an average of 50%. Group B scored an average of 67%. Group C scored an average of 78%. These results supported the hypothesis; Group C scored 28% above the control group’s score, thus supporting the hypothesis.

  6. Vinnie Silverman
    Many experiments have been conducted about the manipulation of human memory. For example, one experiment was done in which participants were shown a video of a car crash, and were asked questions afterward with one specific "indicator word" changed between each set of questions (i.e. "how fast did the cars crash/bump/collide"). The purpose of the experiment was to test whether or not certain actions can manipulate how a person remembers details through a picture rather than a video. This experiment was meaningful because of the many subtleties of human memorization and response that aren't understood as well as others. During the experiment, participants were shown a full-body picture of a person with a car in the background. After looking at the picture for two minutes, they were asked for their best estimate of traits like the person's height, their facial expression, or the objects in the background. The independent variable was the wording of the various questions that were asked. The dependent variable was the closeness of the participant's answers to the actual answer of the question. The control was a set of questions asked with a neutral indicator word. If the indicator word was changed with each group, it was hypothesized that the average responses would be changed based on the indicator word. The results gathered supported the hypothesis. Most of the questions with a positive indicator word were answered with higher numbers than with a negative indicator word. This shows how humans' brains can be affected by the change in just one word.

  7. The Effect of Lyrics and Rhythm on Musical Preference
    Music has a deep connection to people. Some say the meaningful lyrics cause it, while others believe the instruments create the mood. The purpose of this study is to show how rhythm plays an important role in influencing one’s perception of music and to generally see the relationship between the two. It is hypothesized that if the participant listens to a song with lyrics, then the focus will be primarily on the rhythm because it creates the desire to move to the music. In this experiment, two versions of the same song were played, one with lyrics and one without. The duration of both songs was a minute each. Participants were split into two groups. They were all from the same school and grade. Group 1 listened to the song with lyrics, and Group 2 listened to the instrumental version. Each participant answered two questionnaires, one before and one after the music was played, describing their mood. The questionnaires included questions with scales going from 1-5. 1 meant the listener strongly disagreed with the statement, while 5 meant the listener strongly agreed. The results showed that no one in Group 1 experienced a change in mood, which means the lyrics had no effect on them. However, more than half of Group 2 went through mood change while listening to the rhythm only. Therefore, it can be concluded that rhythm received more focus because it caused more mood change than lyrics did, not necessarily because of the urge to move to it. These results were not enough to answer my research question. More data collection is needed to prove or disprove the hypothesis.

  8. White-tailed deer are an important part of the Connecticut ecosystem. These deer are quite common, but not many studies have been performed on their feeding habits. If they have any sort of temporal pattern of feeding, it is unknown. Thus, the research question is “Do whitetailed deer return to the areas in which they feed at the same time each day?” The purpose of this study was to better understand whitetail movements and the workings of our ecosystem. My hypothesis was if deer are presented with a constant food supply, they will return to the area on a regular basis and at about the same time each day. The independent variable is the day of the week for --- weeks. For each day, the time at which any deer returned to the feeder was recorded, therefore the dependent variable hour grouping (e.g. 1-2 AM) was the time of return. The constants included species of animal, type of area, feeder, feed, brand of trail camera used, and time of food dispersion. The materials were as follows: three Cuddeback trail cameras, three tripod feeders, bags of corn to fill the feeders, three wooded areas (all in Bethany) , four SD cards, and an SD card reader. The procedure was to set up the cameras and the feeders, leave them for a period of time, check the photos for data, and record observations. Thus far, the results from Spot One were that deer tended to completely avoid feeding from 4:01 AM to 4:00 PM. Not a single visit was recorded within that timeframe. In Location Two, loosely the same pattern was shown, just shifted a few hours. The main chunk of no visits at all was from 2:01 AM to 3:00 PM. The top two most visited times for Spot One were at dusk and the second runner-up was in the middle of the night. The three most popular times for Spot Two were at dusk. One other popular time was before dawn. My conclusion from this, supported by both sets of data, is that post-rut, deer like to move in darkness. Not a single picture collected was in daylight. All were post-sunset or pre-sunrise. The research question has been satisfied.

  9. The Effect of Music on Memory

    The purpose of this investigation is to reveal whether or not if music has a significant effect on short-term memory and to help students study for quizzes. The hypothesis predicts that out of three genres, (pop, classical, and alternative) classical will improve short-term memory. Materials included consent forms and songs from the genres of pop, alternative, and classical music which were played on an iPhone, Mac Desktop Computer, and a Dell Inspiron Laptop. They were all on a continuous loop. These songs were played for ten minutes. Methods taken into action included gathering the music being listened to through iTunes, administering the short story, creating a quiz based on the major parts of the story, and giving five minutes as needed for each test subject to read and comprehend. Observations, data, and end results supported the hypothesis, but provided information that was unexpected. This information was that pop music showed an equal effect on short-term memory as classical music. However the hypothesis was supported, meaning classical music was also shown to have the greatest effect on short-term memory. All of test subjects listening to these genres scored 100%, while others in the control group and Alternative genre did not do as well. Conclusions from these results indicate that pop music helps studying for tests due to its party-like themes and beats that create a confident feeling for the listener. Classical music helps studying by soothing the listener, and creates a serene surrounding for focusing. Implications from this study include the theory that listening to either pop or classical music can help you study significantly. These genres help memorization, with different approaches. Therefore, both can be utilized to help students study for tests and quizzes.

  10. Matthew McKenna
    The Effect of Chewing Gum on Concentration
    Chewing gum has always been a contested subject in school, with some teachers allowing it and others not. This led to the problem statement was whether or not chewing gum helps your concentration. The purpose of the experiment was to see if chewing gum is a distraction, or an aide to concentration. It was hypothesized that students who chew gum during a simple math test will do better than the students who take the test without chewing gum.This study was conducted on high school students. The participants were split into two groups, one that chewed gum during the test, and another group that did not chew gum during the test. Cobalt give gum was distributed to the students in the chewing gum group, and all the participants were given the test. They had ten minutes to complete the test. The tests were the collected and graded, and the results were analyzed.Ten students were tested, and the students in the chewing gum group did much better than the students in the non-chewing gum group. There was a 28% difference between the two groups, with the chewing gum group doing better than the non-chewing gum group. It was hypothesized that the students who chewed gum during a simple math test would perform better than those who did not, and that was supported with the data. This answers the research question, and does show chewing gum to aide concentration.

  11. Jacob Gibbons-Morales
    Direction goalkeepers dive during a penalty kick
    The goal of this experiment is to determine which direction a goalkeeper dives during a penalty kick if the goalkeeper's team is either tied, wining, or losing. The Association for Psychological Science studied which way a goalkeeper dives in a penalty shootout. The results were that when the goalie's team was losing, they dived to the right while there was no significant difference if their team was either winning or tied. However this experiment will look at penalty kicks when there is illegal play in the box, rather than a penalty shootout, where a series of penalties taken at the end of a game to determine the winner. The hypothesis was that a goalkeeper will dive right when his team losing, but there will be no difference in the direction he dives when his team is tied or winning. While viewing professional male soccer highlights, the date of the game, the competition, the teams, the result at the time of the penalty, which way the goalie dived, and which way the shooter shots was recorded. The result showed when a goalkeeper’s team was tied he dived to the right 61% of the time. When his team was winning or losing he dived to the right around 38%. This is likely because in a regular game being tied is the most high pressure situation because the result rests on the goalie while in a penalty situation losing is the highest pressure situations. The uneven results for winning and losing are likely due to the small sample size. The knowledge of the results are significant since shooters might change the direction they shot, and given that one goal is so important, it can have a major impact on the game.

  12. Nick Beckwith

    The purpose of this study is to find out if video games have an effect on stress, and to help stressful people decide if they’d like to play video games. This may help stressful people relieve their daily accumulated stress by playing video games. It is hypothesized that playing video games will lower stress levels. There were a total of nine participants in the experiment. Each signed a consent form allowing them to participate. Each participant took a pre-questionnaire stress test before playing Google Pacman. Then, each participant played Google Pacman for ten minutes. Finally, they each took the same questionnaire after playing, and their change in results was measured. Results thus far have shown on average, playing Google Pacman does lower your stress. Their “stress points” (the points they got on their stress questionnaire) average a reduction of about three points (out of one hundred five.) However, those who enjoyed the game showed on average a reduction of five stress points, while on average those who didn’t enjoy the game had no change. In conclusion, from the tests and the experiment, the results support the hypothesis, which was that playing video games would lower stress in a person. However, these results are non-conclusive because of a lack of participants and personal preference (enjoyment of the game) was a variable that was uncontrolled.

  13. Haseeb Khan

    This study's purpose was to discover the effects of noise on a person's ability to memorize numbers. People are often forced to study in noisy environments. This study was motivated by this fact so that people could find out what environment is actually best suited for memorizing and studying. It is hypothesized that if students are placed in different noise environments, then those students exposed to no noise will memorize the most numbers versus those who are exposed to 50dbs and 80dbs. The hypothesis will be tested by getting fifteen random students and splitting them up into three groups. The participants will be all around the same age group. They will be exposed to three different noise levels, measured in decibels, while trying to memorize fifteen random two-digit numbers. The first group will look at the given numbers for thirty seconds without being exposed to any noise. Then, they will immediately start to write down as many numbers as they remember in no specific order. The second group will look at the random numbers for thirty seconds while being exposed to 50 decibels of noise. The noise will be shut off and then they will write down as many numbers as they remember in any order, too. The last group will be exposed to 80 decibels for thirty seconds and, after the noise is shut off, write down as many numbers as they remember. The three groups are each trials for the experiment. When all tests are completed, the data will be recorded into a data table to compare the results to see if the hypothesis was proven correct. As of now, the results gathered from the experiment show that the hypothesis was correct. Those students who were exposed to no noise memorized more numbers than the students that were exposed to 50 dbs and 80 dbs of noise. Also, the data shows that as noise increases, a person’s memory becomes progressively worse. When comparing the three groups, it was seen that the 50 dbs group memorized more numbers than the 80 dbs group, but less than the 0 dbs group.

  14. The purpose of this project is to investigate how artificial intelligence affects student learning. Every day the world is becoming more dependent on technology – from almost everyone holding a smartphone in his or her hands to touchscreen SmartBoards. Robotic teachers may seem to be in the far future, but companies such as Aldebaran Robotics (makers of the NAO robot) are advancing quickly. Thus, a question is posed: would it be beneficial to students if robotic teachers replaced human teachers? It is hypothesized students will be able to grasp a topic better when taught by a robot. In order to perform this experiment, modifications had to be made. Since a robot could not be obtained, voice recordings were used instead. Students were lectured by either a human voice or an artificial voice (Microsoft Narrator). All participants are freshmen in Level 1 World History. Prior to the experiment, a script was written to avoid introducing the words spoken as another variable. Both voice recordings were recorded based on the script. No questions were answered during or after the lecture. After the lecture, a ten-question multiple choice assessment was given. The results from the assessments showed how well students absorbed the material for each voice recording. The hypothesis was proven correct. Results show that students that were lectured by an artificial voice scored higher than students that were lectured by a human voice. The average score for those lectured by a human voice is 46%, while the average score for those lectured by an artificial voice is 70%. Also, the p-value (0.028) and the t-value (2.331) show that the data is statistically significant. Therefore, it is concluded students grasped the material better when lectured by an artificial voice.

  15. Patrick Neumann

    The Effects of Relaxing Music on Blood Pressure:

    A study will be conducted to figure out the effects of relaxing music or a stress relief exercise on a person’s blood pressure. Having a lot of stress can cause negative behaviors and habits, including possible heart disease. When we go through stress, our bodies release special stress hormones, which cause the heart to beat at a faster rate, and our blood vessels contract. When the blood vessels contract, it makes your blood pressure rise to a harmful amount. With a high blood pressure, our bodies go through numerous phases of distress and weakness. Our immune system’s ability to fight infections is lowered. We can go through stages of depression, or possible intense physical pain. However, would listening to relaxing music have an effect on one’s blood pressure? It is hypothesized that if a person has a low amount of stress, then their blood pressure will decrease. If this hypothesis proves itself to be true, we will now know a better way to lower your blood pressure. This could especially be useful because we would find out if listening to relaxing music would lower your blood pressure.

  16. Devon Hebert

    Does light affect scale pigment? Research states that lack of light will turn
    goldfish white or a dull color. has conducted studies that prove
    the research. There has not been any research on the adaptions of fish
    scales. Different colored lights were implemented to see if that would have
    any effect on the color of the fish. This project can be duplicated by
    blacking out all sides of a fish tank. Then you would put a blue, red, or
    yellow light on top of the tank. To check for change you would use a color
    wheel. The method for this project was to change the color of the fish by
    using lights. This idea was created to show the adaptability of scales. It is
    hypothesized that if another color of light was introduced to the fish then
    they should turn a color similar to the light. It is hard to control the lives of
    the fish. This is so difficulty because I have given the near perfect
    conditions and they are still passing away. The data has not differed since
    the beginning of the project. All of the fish are the same color orange since
    the start of my experiment. This is a still ongoing experiment so; there
    could be a change in data. I believe the colors could be affecting the tanks
    more than the fish.

  17. Eli Silvert

    How Practicing Memorizing Affects One’s Ability To Memorize

    Does repeated memorization affect one’s ability to memorize? This study’s results could enable people to memorize new information more accurately and efficiently. For example, if things like phone numbers, names, and grocery lists are repeatedly memorized, memorizing new ones could become easier. It is hypothesized that if someone is given unique sets of 15 digits 10 times, then the amount of digits memorized will increase as the amount of practice increases. This study consists of 10 trials. In each trial the participants memorize as many of the 15 digits as they can for one minute. After the minute, they flip the paper over and remember the digits for another minute without writing. Then, they write as many digits as they can in correct order on the blank side of the paper. The independent variable is the test number (amount of practice) while the dependent variable is the number of digits memorized in correct order. Results show that as practice increases, ability to memorize improves. All the participants’ test scores increased as they practiced more. So the hypothesis is accepted. However, there have only been four participants so more subjects will be tested before conclusive results will be found. Findings from this experiment could innovate the way people study and remember various things. Perhaps, if someone practices their memory with digits, as this study does, then it could be easier for them to memorize other things such as names. Findings from this study could change the way people memorize and the way students study for exams, potentially making this tedious task more efficient and accurate.

  18. If you have one cup of coffee with 1 tablespoon of cream before a test, then your test score will increase. The motivation of this study is to find a correlation between caffeine and increased test scores. If this is proven true, it could change the way students everywhere prepare for tests. Initially an attempt was made to obtain volunteers from Amity High School. Due to their busy class schedules, it was decided to use adults from Boy Scout Troop 63. The test was administered Monday, January 21, 2013 at approximately 8:00 pm. To conduct the experiment, a Social Studies test was given to the control group. The same test was then given to the independent variable group after they consumed one cup of coffee with one tablespoon of cream. The results were then analyzed. This experiment proved that caffeine is beneficial when taking a test, but not by a substantial margin. The data initially shows that overall the control group did better than the independent variable group, but looking at the data further an outlier was found. This outlier changed the mean of the data by a substantial margin. Based on results coffee does increase test scores. Although this is true, it only increases test scores by a minimal percent. The original research question was answered. There is a positive correlation between caffeine and increased test scores.

    Ryan Oleynik

  19. How Time of Day Affects Student Cognition
    Ellen Li

    This study will help see whether or not the time of day affects student cognition, and to what lengths. It has been shown in the past that certain students, teenagers especially, have been at a disadvantage in learning due to having class schedules focused in either the morning or the afternoon. The aim of this experiment is to determine what the optimal time for instruction is as well as to see which areas of cognition are affected the most. From prior research, the hypothesis is if students attend the testing session in the afternoon rather than the morning, they will score higher. In order to test this hypothesis, two groups of students, all roughly from the same academic level and same grade, took four brief cognitive tests on basic functions including memory, reasoning, concentration, and planning. One group took it at 7:00 AM and the other group at 2:30 PM. The average results for all of the afternoon testing sessions are higher than their morning counterparts, which supports the hypothesis. However, since there was a fairly small sample size, this is not conclusive. There was also only little change in some areas, such as memory. The most significant difference was between the planning test averages, in which the afternoon group surpassed the morning group by 11.33 points, roughly a third of its total. Though this data cannot prove the hypothesis, it is a step forward in answering the question of whether or not time of day affects student cognition.

  20. Victoria Li
    The Effect of Different Types of Eco Roofs on the Internal Temperatures of Buildings

    Eco roofs are one potential way to reduce global warming effects and to protect
    our environment. Different types of eco roofs include most notably green roofs and blue roofs.
    Green roofs contain a growing medium and a vegetated layer and have been around for
    centuries. Blue roofs are fairly recent development, and contain large amounts of water. This
    experiment is designed to compare the temperature trends of both of these eco roofs and a
    normal roof to see which type of roof is best at mitigating temperature change. The hypothesis
    reached was that both the green roof model’s (green model) and blue roof model’s (blue model)
    internal temperatures would change. However, the blue model’s internal temperature would
    fluctuate more than the green model’s as the water on the blue model would freeze and thaw
    quicker than the soil on the green model, causing the internal temperature change to be greater
    in the blue model. This experiment was conducted for a span of eleven days, twelve hours each
    day. Three identical models were built: one green, one blue, and one normal.. Three Ambient
    Weather Digital Indoor/Outdoor probe thermometers were then used to measure the internal
    temperature of each model which was recorded every thirty minutes. In order to get the best
    results, all variables that could possibly change (i.e., weather) were controlled except for the
    type of roof; therefore, the experiment was only done on days that had similar weather
    patterns. After this experiment was conducted, it was observed that the green model initially
    maintained a higher internal temperature than the blue and the normal model. As the day went
    on, the outside temperature rose along with the internal temperatures of all three models, with
    the normal model’s internal temperature surpassing both that of the blue model and green
    model. In addition, the blue model’s internal temperature rose more quickly than the green
    model’s internal temperature. Later, as the outside temperature dropped, the internal
    temperatures of all three models decreased, but the normal and blue model’s internal
    temperatures decreased more quickly than the green model’s internal temperature. Eventually,
    the internal temperatures of the blue model and normal model were lower than the green
    model’s internal temperature. It can be concluded that the green model’s internal temperature
    does not fluctuate as much as the blue model’s internal temperature.