Course Description

Science Research Program – Grades 9, 10, 11, 12


Full Year – Level H: Incoming freshman and sophomore students must apply for admission to this program in January of the prior academic year. Acceptance into the program will be based on a science teacher recommendation, a written essay, and excellent academic grades.


This is an ongoing program that is taken in conjunction with the student’s regular science course. There are several tiers to the program. During Year 1 students learn the components of scientific research including the scientific method and apply these concepts in various settings including designing and conducting an authentic science research project and communicating results by participation in at least one local science fair. Students also explore various applications of science topics through field trips, guest speakers and class projects. Advanced students (Years 2-4) select their science research topic, locate an out-of-school mentor (either in industry or at a local university) and compete in a variety of science fairs including the CT State Science Fair, Southern CT Invitational Science and Engineering Fair (SCSEF) and the CT Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (CT JSHS). Advanced students pursue their selected research in depth, perform statistical analysis and compete at a number of local and/or national science fairs and competitions. In Years 2, 3, and 4 students are grouped together in a non-traditional classroom setting and are required to meet individually outside of class with their Science Research Instructor biweekly to review individual goals and assess progress. All students participate in the culminating annual activity, Amity’s Science Symposium.


Monday, November 18, 2013

2013-14 Year 1 SRP Research Proposals

Please place your 2013-14 Research Proposal on this Post. Proposals should be approximately 250 words. Be sure to include your name (or initials) and research title followed by a single paragraph including:

Background/Motivation

Research Question
Hypothesis
Variables
Methods
Location/Mentor (if applicable) 

Your name (if posting as anonymous)

29 comments:

  1. The motivation for this experiment is from the hit show, “Lie to Me”, based off of Paul Ekman, a lie “detector”. Paul Ekman detects lies from body language and facial expressions. So, what is the effect of lie detection training on ability to detect lies? The independent variable is whether participants receive training. The dependent variable is the number of lies and truths correctly detected. It is hypothesized the if one group trains by watching videos on lie detecting, then that group will detect more lies correctly.The control group will be group B because they won’t have any prior training to watching the video, like most people. The materials used will be a computer, participants, paper, pencils. The procedure will be as follows: first, two groups of ten 12 to 14-year olds will be decided.Group A will watch Ekman Micro Expression Training Tool Lite from Dr. Paul Ekman’s website and will answer a worksheet . Group B won’t have any prior knowledge of lie detecting. Next, both groups will be shown ten video clips of people lying or telling the truth. Then, each person in each group will watch the videos and write down which clips are showing a lie. These papers will be collected and analyzed to see how many people correctly noticed the truth/lie. The data will be put into bar graphs, with the number of each video on the X axis, and the number of people who correctly guessed. There will be two bars, one for the trained, and one for untrained. There will be no mentor and the location for watching the videos is a basement.
    Neha Pashankar

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  2. Throughout the school week, many students count down the minutes until the school day ends, and they are often surprised by how fast or slow the day went by. A student may say off hand “It’s only third period?” or “Its already third period?” indicating that they felt that time was passing at a different rate than it actually was. Perhaps there are certain characteristics which vary between each day, and these create the illusion of time moving faster or slower. Does the weather affect how fast or slow students perceive time to pass by? It is hypothesized that if it rains during the day, then the day will seem to go by slower. There cannot be a control group because there is no ‘baseline’ weather. Materials for this experiment include the blank data tables, a calendar with all of the weather recorded, and participants. Students participating in the experiment will be given the sheet to write down their data. They will be required to write down the day of the week and date, and at the end of the school day, 2:18p.m., they will rate how fast the day went by on a scale of 1 – 10: 1 being extremely slow, 5 being average speed or normal and 10 being extremely fast. The participants have to report their time perception once a day, every weekday for four weeks. The weather will be kept track of separately, so participants will not know that the study is based off of weather and won’t form a biased opinion. The corresponding weather for each day will be incorporated into the data analysis and then patterns between weather and the time perception ratings will be noted.

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  3. The Effect of Fragrance in Soap on the Perception of Cleanliness
    By: Kate Alvarado
    7 November 2013

    Most companies sell soaps with fragrances added. At this day in age, you can pretty much go to the store and buy virtually any scent out there, and you’re free to choose which one you like best, all based on personal preference. However, almost all people automatically buy the scented rather than the unscented soaps. Why is this? Do people think that fragranced soaps clean better than unfragranced soaps? It is hypothesized if the subjects use both the fragranced and unfragranced soaps, then most will like the fragranced soaps better than the unscented soaps, despite the two being the exact same soap. The independent variable is the scent of soap used. The dependent variable will be the overall cleanliness a person feels, which will be based off a questionnaire the subject responds to after they use both of the products. The control of the experiment is the unscented soaps. The experiment calls for three of the same soaps, two scented and one unscented, about 20 subjects (ideally this will be 10 men and 10 women, try to keep the age somewhat constant), and a questionnaire to which the subject will respond to as to which soap they felt cleaned better. The questionnaire will specifically ask which of the soaps cleaned the subject the best and which one that felt cleaner after using, despite the fact that they are the same. The subject should not be aware of the fact that the soaps are the same, despite the scent added. To carry out the experiment, give each subject the three types of soap, two scented and one unscented. Have them use each type of soap in the shower for three days in a row, and have them respond to the questionnaire every day on their overall cleanliness. In the end, the experiment will show how the soap’s scent can change the subject’s perception of cleanliness.

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  4. Kathleen Walsh
    November 7, 2013

    The Effect of Focus Vitamin Water on Memorization

    Each bottle of Vitamin Water Focus includes lutein, a carotenoid found in leafy green vegetables. Studies show that lutein protects against eye related illnesses, and eye health is critical to focusing. The topic of this research is if focus vitamin water has an effect on memorization. The independent variable is the liquid consumption of vitamin water, and the dependent variable is the ability to memorize. The control of this experiment is the group of participants that don’t drink the vitamin water; this experiment will be preformed at the same time of day, on the same day, and in the same environment. This experiment needs ten equal leveled participants, who will be split up into control and experimental groups, ten bottles of focus vitamin water, and a stopwatch. To start this experiment the participants will be split into two groups. Group A will be drinking nothing and Group B will be drinking twenty ounces of vitamin water focus. Then each participant will get thirty seconds to focus and memorize some of the numbers in a twenty number sequence. The numbers will be written on a piece of paper and will be put in front of each participant for thirty seconds. Then the paper will be taken away and the participants will wait ten seconds before writing the numbers in the required sequence. Each participant will do this three times, with three different number sequences. If Group A and Group B have equal results on the series of focus tests, then it will show that the focus water does not effect your focus.

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  5. Adam Hurwitz

    The Effect of Negative Ion Increasing Bracelets on Balance and Flexibility

    Power Balance and Trion Z are two brands of bracelet that make claims to alter the ions within the human body, in order to somehow enhance its ability to perform athletic skills. There has not, however, been sufficient evidence provided by the companies, or others, of the truth behind this. Thousands of athletes all across the country and the world use these bracelets, and if they were proven to work, many more would buy them. However, if they were proven a placebo effect, fewer and fewer would buy them. These brands of bracelet are supposed to enhance athletic ability. So, do these brands of bracelets actually affect the balance/flexibility of the human body? The control will be a LiveStrong foundation silicon bracelet, so that the participant is always wearing a bracelet. Materials necessary would be a LiveStrong Bracelet, a Trion Z Bracelet, and a Power Balance bracelet, as well as Three dark colored wrist bands to cover the bracelets during testing, a blindfold for putting the bracelets on the participants, plyometric boxes from the weight room, small weights for balance activities, and the sit and reach box to test flexibility. The data will be analyzed by several tests of flexibility and balance. These will consist of the Flamingo Balance Test, Stork Stand Test, Standing Balance Test, and the State’s Sit and Reach Test Each participant will take each of the four tests two times while wearing each bracelet. While the participants’ flexibility may increase as they get warmer, I will ask them to stretch out before they partake in testing. The flexibility test will be first, then a series of three balance tests.

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  6. Sarah Saxe

    The Effect of Subliminal Messages on Food Selection

    The motivation to carry out this experiment comes from the widespread advertisements that influence consumers’ choices of the foods they consume. Often, unhealthy choices, such as fast food, are advertised through catchy jingles and mascots to lure new customers. Thus, the goal of this experiment is to determine the effectiveness of subliminal messages on food choices. Do subliminal messages shape daily choices that affect one’s food choices? It is hypothesized that if participants watch a video containing subliminal messages promoting specific food options, then their food choices will be influenced. The independent variable is the type of images shown relating to food options: healthy, unhealthy, or none. The dependent variable is the participant’s food choices after watching the video. The control is the group watching the video with no subliminal messages. The experiment will begin with creating a video by adding different subliminal messages in the form of pictures and creating three variations of the video. Then, three groups of students will watch a different video clip filled with ten subliminal messages. Each group will watch a video containing subliminal messages either portraying healthy, unhealthy, or no food options. Data will be analyzed using an identical survey that is given to all three groups after watching the video. This survey will question participants on specific food options that were seen within the subliminal messages. The responses from participants will be graphed using bar graphs both individually and by group average, then analyzed and compared to determine if subliminal messages do, in fact, influence food choices and preferences.

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  7. The Effect of Type of Music on Numeric Memorization Ability
    By: Jasmine Moon

    Many people enjoy listening to music while they study. However, listening to music while remembering facts or numbers can decrease the ability to memorize. What is the effect of type of music on the memory of numbers? The IV is the type of music, and the DV is the number of digits remembered. It is hypothesized that if people listen to no music, then they will be able to memorize the three different sets of 15 digits. The control group is the group memorizing numbers with no music playing. The materials needed for this experiment are a powerpoint of the slides with digits, computer, papers, pencils, survey sheets, timer, and freshman participants. The first part of the procedure is to play the music and to keep it on throughout the whole experiment. For 15 seconds, the participants will listen to it. Then, 15 numbers will be shown on a powerpoint slide for 25 seconds. After, the subjects will memorize as many numbers as they remember for 40 seconds. Lastly, each participant will write down the digits that they can recall onto a sheet of paper. Repeat this two more times. After, the participants will fill out a survey that asks how familiar they were with the song and whether they liked it or not. Repeat this whole experiment with a song from different music genres: pop, rock, country, classical and no music. This experiment will be conducted in one day. The data will be analyzed by noting how many numbers each participant recollected, and it will be inserted into a data table and a bar graph.

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  8. Marissa Della-GiustinaNovember 21, 2013 at 6:35 PM

    The Effect of Hearing Vs. Seeing On Ability to Memorize
    By: Marissa Della-Giustina

    Things can be remembered in different ways based off a person’s senses; taste, touch, sight, smell, and hearing. Students generally use their senses of sight and hearing to study, but which method is better for memorizing? The problem of this experiment is, “Is hearing or seeing two-digit numbers a more effective method of memorization?” The independent variable is the method people are using to memorize the numbers, and the dependent variable is the amount of numbers the participants can recall and write down for each method. It is hypothesized that seeing will be a more effective method of memorizing these numbers. The procedure will consist of subjects seeing and hearing a set of double-digit numbers. In each test, the numbers will be different, however both tests will only use two-digit, positive numbers. One at a time, each participant will begin with the hearing test; they will hear a list of 20 pre-recorded numbers, said for five seconds each, using an iPad and then have a minute to sit in silence. They then have another minute to write down as many of the numbers as they can remember. In the next test, the visual test, the subjects will go through the same procedure as the hearing test, except they will see 20 two-digit numbers displayed on an iPad screen for five seconds, instead of hearing them. The numbers will be different than those in the hearing test, and they would show up on the screen one at a time, like a slideshow of pictures, but instead each number is being displayed. The materials are an iPad, paper, pencils, a timer, and participants. The amount of numbers each participant is able to remember correctly after the listening test and the visual test will be compared for the data.

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  9. An Investigation of Tread Depth, Width, and Direction on Tire Traction in Snow
    Nicole Feng

    Tire traction on passenger vehicles has become a more prominent issue in vehicle design due to extreme winter weather in recent years. This study aims to investigate the effect of tread depth, width, and direction on traction and determine the type of tread that will maximize traction in snow. It is hypothesized that if the tread depth and width is greater, then this will allow more snow to pack into the tire so the tire can “lock” onto the snow on the ground. Treads in a directional pattern, or a v-shape, are known be generally more efficient at channeling water away and it is hypothesized that this will further improve traction. The investigation will be carried out using a small remote controlled car with removable wheels. Different treads will be created by carving patterns into rubber strips that can be glued on the outside of plastic car wheels. Three sets of wheels will be created with varying tread depth, three more sets with varying tread width, and another three with circumferential, horizontal, or directional treads. One set will have no treads at all. Tire traction will be measured by driving the car across a certain distance in a flat area of snow, which will be repacked after every trial, and comparing how long it takes the car with each type of tread to complete the distance. Each type of tire will also be tested on a course with several turns in it and the time it takes to complete the course recorded; this will compare traction when turning. Three trials will be completed for each course for each tire.

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  10. Teddy Hague
    Josh Crow

    The Vought F4U Corsair was a carrier-capable fighter aircraft that saw service primarily in World War II and the Korean War. It was one of the most effective aircraft of its time and had an 11:1 kill death ratio against Japanese Zeros. It had one of the most powerful engines of its time: the Pratt and Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp 18 Cylinder Radial Engine and, in 1940, was the first single engine aircraft to exceed 400 miles per hour. Using the engineering design process, students will redesign the landing gear of the Corsair, bringing it up to modern standards and using new technology. The 3-D modeling program, SolidWorks, will be used to digitally apply forces to the structure and to test for their effects. Certain mechanical features will be altered that will ultimately better the efficiency and safety of the landing gear, and the jet itself. Depending on which force or aspect of physics the STEM Sikorsky Challenge administrators would like us research and beneficially apply to the landing gear, we may be measuring anything from air drag and aerodynamics to impulse of the aircraft’s landing. We will be using Connecticut Innovations (CT iHub), a website where we can submit assignments and communicate with our mentors. Although we have access to several mentors, we will primarily work with Ron Novick, an Avionic Systems Engineer at Sikorsky Aircraft.

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  11. Creating Apps to Test Creative Thinking
    By : David Wang

    With the rise of technology in the 21st century, smartphones have become more and more accessible to the public. This new accessibility has also increased the use of “apps”, or applications, for one’s mobile phone. Technology, also has become more apparent in the classroom. Interest in creativity has also expanded a lot since the last half century and become a very eminent topic in the field of education. This study aims to create an app that can test creative thinking in students. The motivation for this study was the increase in popularity of mobile phone applications and a past creativity study conducted at Amity. A computer, and knowledge of programming languages will be required to program and create an app that will be able to test creative thinking. The app will use basic verbal and graphical creativity tests to measure the creativity of its users. One example is a test designed by Ellis Paul Torrance in the 1960s that required the test taker to draw a picture using a set of incomplete lines. The app will be programmed with assistance from Prof. Barbot. Once the app is finished, participants will be asked to take a paper and pencil version of the creativity tests and then will take the electronic versions. The results will then be compared against each other to check for the validity of the app created, as a tool to measure creativity with its users.

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  12. Aria Mohseni
    11/25/13
    The Effect of Insole Design on Running Performance

    The insole design of shoes has always been a huge matter in the shoe industry. Sneakerheads and shoe fanatics have always asked for comfortable, but high performance sneakers. As Nike, Adidas, and other successful shoe brands continue developing technology that will affect running performance, the insole design will always be a huge variable. A question that arises is how does the insole design of shoes effect running performance? As planning for this experiment continues and variables have the tendency to change, the independent variable for now is the design of the insole. The dependent variable will be the time it takes a person to run 100m. Continuing, it is hypothesized that if the pattern of the insole design of a Nike shoe is changed to a Lunarlon insole, then the time it takes for the same person to run 100 meters will become quicker and the comfort level will increase. Some materials that will be used in this experiment can range from Nike Roshe Runs to different insole designs to fit the shoes. Timers will also be used in timing the volunteer. Supposedly, to create an experiment that would obtain less sources of error would involve the same routine before the timed race and the same amount of volunteers used. Also reaction time can be a source of error in this experiment as human timing is nearly 0.24 seconds off from the accurate time. Another way the experiment will obtain fewer errors is by running indoors. This eliminates the weather and temperature variables that could have created a significant change. Also before conducting the experiment, eight volunteers will jog a 100m for a warm up. Considering this, the control in this experiment will be a Nike Roshe Run (Standard Nike running shoe). The data will be represented in the forms of a data table involving the volunteers time with the Nike Roshe Run running shoe and different insole designs.

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  13. Many stimuli can affect the brain’s short-term memory. Tests conducted in EPFL’s Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO) have confirmed the hypothesis that light intensity has an impact on cognitive mechanisms. Also on average, only 7 memories can be stored in your brain’s short-term memory. The question is how do sound, lighting, and color affect your short term memory; it is hypothesized that if the sounds, lighting, and color of the quiz paper are changed, then the sounds in the room will affect the subject’s memory the most. The independent variables to be tested are the sounds in the room (music), the brightness of the room, and the color of the paper of which the quiz is on (white, orange, brown). The dependent variable is the subject’s memory ability. The control will be with everything normal, white paper, normal lighting, no music, etc. First, the 5-10 subjects will be gathered with their consent forms signed. Next, they will be given 7 numbers to memorize. The subjects will receive 1 minute to memorize the numbers. After the minute, they will have 5 minutes in between the memorizing and the quiz. In these 6 minutes, the setting of the room will be changed. It will change in the way of the brightness or darkness of the room, the sounds, or music, in the room, the quiz’s paper color. Each subject will take the quiz with each different variable changed and the 7 numbers changed. The room used will have a light switch that can change the brightness of the lights, and a stereo will be placed in the room. The color of the paper will change from a normal white to a bright or dark color of orange and brown. The 6 minutes include the minute memorizing and the 5-minute intermission. Then they will take the quiz, which will have 1 question but it will have 6 options, and the subject will have to choose which option contains the numbers in the right order. The data will be the subject’s scores on the quizzes. If they get it right, that’s 12 points. One question will have two numbers switched, that’s 10 points. One will have 3 numbers switched, that’s worth 8 points, and so on.

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  14. The Effect of Stress on a Cricket's Chirping Rate
    By Lillian Zhang


    Changing the food stress on nymphal male crickets can alter their calling and chirping sounds, according to Scheuber H. and his partners' research.This study will aim to investigate the effect of stress on a cricket’s chirping rate, using hermit crabs to contribute stress because they are predators to crickets.The independent variable is the amount of stress enforced on each cricket and the dependent variable is the cricket’s chirping rate (number of chirps per minute). The amount of stress is measured by the number of hermit crabs, assuming that each hermit crab is going to enforce stress on the crickets. It is hypothesized that if stress from two hermit crabs is induced on a cricket, then the cricket’s chirping rate will be at a higher rate than the other two stress levels.To test this hypothesis, three glass cages of the environment suited for hermit crabs will be set up in the same room at the same temperature. The three crickets (Acheta domesticus), and six hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus), will be bought from the same local pet store. For the first part of the study, each cricket (A,B, or C) will be placed in a cage that has no hermit crabs in the cage, (control group). The chirps with be timed by a timer in a minute and recorded by a device placed in the cage, which is later played out to count the chirps. This is done three times for three trials, with an half hour in between time, where the crickets are put in grass boxes. Next, the same steps will be used while having one hermit crab in the cage, and then with two hermit crabs. Once each recording is reviewed to count the chirps and transferred into a data table, a bar graph will be made for visual viewing.

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  15. The Impact of Exercise on Stress
    Felicia Thomas

    Stress can impact many people’s lives in a negative manner and create an unhealthy atmosphere for the body. Some negative effects of stress are high blood pressure and obesity. A study from the John Hopkins, School of Education incudes that; “When one is calm and alert, the prefrontal lobes are free to engage in higher level thinking tasks. Positive emotions help a child to pay attention, concentrate, solve problems, be creative, learn and remember (Goleman, p. 85).” Scientists can measure stress from brain waves or by their heart rate using a device called emWave. The emWave shows the heart beat to beat and the change in beat over time, although access to this device is not available in this experiment. Specifically, the emWave shows the effect of stress on the body, while helping to reduce it by training the body to create more consistency when dealing with stress. The experimental question is, does exercise impact stress levels positively or negatively? If sustained exercise is incorporated into a daily routine, then the stress will be contained to a minimum. The independent variable is the amount of exercise, and the dependent variable is the outcome of stress. In order to perform this experiment it requires 10-15 test participants, high school aged. Each participant will take a stress test before and after completing exercise. The exercise portion will consist of each person walking a total of 2,000 steps which is equal to about 1 mile. After the exercise portion, participants will again take another stress test. This process will be completed multiple times in order to determine the effect of exercise on stress. A data chart will be needed in order to keep track of all the results from each participant. Once all the data is officially collected, it will be analyzed to determine the outcome of the results and to see if exercise indeed does or does not affect stress.

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  16. Effect of Liquid pH on Growth of Garlic
    By Jimmy Bi

    All plants have different pH preferences, however, those in the same area tend to have similarities in this field. The pH scale is one that measures how acidic or basic a substance is, ranging from 0 to 14: 7 being neutral, 0 being acidic, and 14 being basic. Depending on the pH of fluids, it is possible for certain plants to grow better or worse. This investigation will be conducted on the effect of liquid pH on growth of garlic, an organism with a relatively quick growth rate and can be grown year round. It is hypothesized that if the liquid pH is neutral, then the garlic will grow tallest. The independent variable for this experiment will be the liquid pH, and the dependent variable will be the height of each plant. The other variables will kept constant. The control will be the water with a neutral pH. In order to investigate this topic, it will be necessary to acquire vinegar as a basic solution and lemon juice as an acidic solution. After obtaining these samples, potted soil will be added to 3 pots, and then the garlic will be planted. There will be a pot for a neutral solution, an acidic solution, and a basic solution. They will be watered daily with their respective fluids, and after every other day, results should be recorded for 5 weeks. Once this process is complete, the steps will be repeated for more trials and data.

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  17. The Effect of Different Genres of Music on Various Cognitive tasks, ie: Verbal Memory, Spatial Accuracy, and Vocabulary

    The debate on whether or not music is beneficial to being academically productive has been around for a long time. Psychologists have been researching this question in multiple ways. One study conducted by Furnham and Bradley at the University College London in 1997 tested the effect of background music on a memory test and reading comprehension test. Overall, the tests results showed that participants without the music scored higher test results. This experiment will investigate the effect of different genres of music on various cognitive tasks such as verbal memory, spatial accuracy, and vocabulary. The independent variable in this study is the genre of music: classical, bluegrass, and rap. The dependent variable is the rate of accuracy with which each participant solves each cognitive task within a given time frame. It has been hypothesized that the test group with the classical music will have better test results over the other music genres; however, the control group will have the highest results overall. To test the hypothesis, freshman participants will be divided into the four groups: classical, bluegrass, rap, and control. Each group will first be given the same several words at the beginning of the testing session after the music for each genre has started to play. Next, they will be given a jigsaw puzzle to complete in the allotted time. The percentage of completion will be recorded. Once finished, they will be given letter tiles of a word and will have to create several words out of the letters from the large word. This will be testing the number of words created out of the maximum words possible. Finally, the participants will have to recite the words given to them at the beginning of the session to test their memory. Additional materials will include a timer to measure the allotted time for each challenge.

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  18. Julia Nadelmann
    The Effect of Peer Presence on Eating Habits in Adolescents and Young Adults
    Around 95% of females suffering from eating disorders are between the ages of 12-25. Those who suffer from eating disorders often have very low self-esteem, driving them toward extreme measures and regulations of eating habits. Eating disorders often result from one’s need to be accepted by peers and society. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of peer presence on eating habits. It is hypothesized that if peer pressure effects eating and exercise habits in adolescents and young adults, then the greater presence of peers, the more likely one will be to have more abnormal eating habits. This will be a correlation study, which tests the correlation between one’s eating habits and the pressure of their peers, thus it will not have independent or dependent variables. To conduct this project, a survey will be distributed to students in which they will be asked questions regarding their likelihood to eat and exercise with the presence of friends, versus the likelihood of eating and exercising when alone. The questions asked on the survey will be answered on a likert scale ranging from 1-5, 5 being very likely, and 1 being not likely at all. Other questions will attempt to measure the amount of peer pressure one feels in different social situations. The data will then be analyzed to determine which characteristics are most prevalent in those subjects conforming to peer pressure, and the regulation of food consumption for students when in the presence of others.

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  19. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on High School Students Between the Ages of 14 and 15

    A study done by Alyce Holland and Thomas Andre at Iowa State University says that peer associations and activity-based identity formation lead to a better academic trajectory and a lower risk of participation in high-risk activities. Therefore, participation in extracurricular activities that include peer associations and activity-based identity formation should have the same results. These extracurricular activities include sports, music, and organized after-school activities. Also, an analytical study done by Claudia K. Fox, Daheia Barr-Anderson, Dianne Neumark-Stainer, and Melanie Wall found that both male and female students’ participation in sports teams lead them to a higher GPA. The purpose of this study is to find a gold class balance between extracurricular activities and academics to better students' academic trajectory. This will be a correlation study. It is hypothesized that if a student participates in more physical activity extracurricular activities. they will feel more prepared for class and complete and put effort into their school work. The results of this study would help students create their schedule with an appropriate amount of activities to have the highest success in school. A survey will investigate the participants' performance in class, study habits, and involvement in extracurricular activities. A total of ten to thirty high school students in a level one math class and a level one English class will participate in the survey. The survey will be analyzed to see if the students who participate in more physical activities and focus more on these activities have better grades and feel more prepared for class. It will be analyzed to to support or disagree with the hypothesis.

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  20. Haya Jarad
    Ms. Day
    Science Research 2013-2014
    11/16/13

    What Materials Most Efficiently Absorb Oil And What Effect Does Water Salinity Have on Their Ability To Do So?


    Oil spills are a negative footprint left behind by mankind. Aftermath includes ruined environments and weakened animals. However, effort is being made to lighten the impact. Scientists like Ervin Fingas have been researching methods for absorption of oils using different sorbents. However not much research has been done to investigate the effect of water conditions on the efficiency of these materials. In this experiment it will be researched which materials most efficiently absorb oil and what effect water salinity has on their ability to do so. It is hypothesized that if oil is absorbed using different materials, than cotton will perform best, but not as well when introduced to saline water. The independent variables are material type and water salinity and the dependent variable is oil absorption. This project will be done in two phases. In phase one 100ml of distilled water will be poured into three shallow containers. Then, 50 ml of cooking-oil will be added along with two drops food coloring. Into each container one of three sorbents (cotton ball, polypropylene pad and baby powder) will be placed. After the fourth day, the volume of the water/oil will be re-measured and the amount absorbed will be calculated (old volume-new volume). The best performing material will be put into an identical environment as Phase One, except the water will include 50g, 100g, 150g of salt. The same method will be used to find the amount absorbed as in Phase One. The data will be recorded and presented.

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  21. Alex Friedman
    Period 6 SPR
    11-10-13

    The Effect of Storage on the Development of Mold in White and Wheat Bread
    There are thousands of molds that can grow in your food, and make food discolored, and unsuitable to eat. Some molds are harmless, but some are not, and "The average person doesn’t know which mold is harmful," according to Michael P. Doyle, PhD, the director of the Center for Food Safety at the University of Georgia, in Athens, Ga. If you don’t know what kind of mold it is, then it is advised to not eat it at all. Why let your bread get to that point when you could prevent the mold all together. This research project will determine the effect of storage on the mold in bread. To conduct this experiment, 24 pieces of white and wheat bread will be gathered. They will be set in different storage types; original plastic container(control), bread box, a zip-lock bag, an open plate, a brown paper bag, glass Tupperware, plastic Tupperware, and a plastic bag. These will be set in the same area, so that the outside factors are constant. Each slice of bread will be taken out every 24 hours for 30 days to simulate someone getting bread from the area, and while doing so, pictures will be taken from 6 angles (front, back and all 4 sides) to see how much mold has grown on the bread. It will be recorded with the picture and area of the mold. The independent variable is the type of storage. The dependent variable is the amount of mold on the bread. It is hypothesized that the bread box will have the least amount of mold on it after the 30 day period. The materials that will be needed are a camera, 8 pieces of bread, a zip-lock bag, a brown paper bag, a plastic bag, glass and plastic Tupperware, a bread box, and a plate.

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  22. The Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on the Growth Rate and Leaf Color of Spinach Plants
    This study is designed to investigate the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth rate and color of spinach plants. Organic fertilizers are made from materials taken from living things, and chemical fertilizers are made from artificial, inorganic materials. Both of the fertilizers are rich in the three nutrients needed for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The darker the leaf color, the healthier the spinach leaf is. According to past study done in 2010 in Cairo, Egypt had shown that chemical fertilizers provide an immediate supply of nutrients for the plant, while organic fertilizers have a slow-release method, but may not be able the fully supply the nutrients needed for the plant. In another study, it was shown that the fertilizer with a higher fertility, organic fertilizer, will give the plants a darker leaf color. The purpose of the experiment is to determine which fertilizer increases the growth rate of a spinach plant the most. Also, determine which fertilizer gives the leaves a dark green color. The independent variable in this experiment is the type of fertilizer added to a spinach plant. The dependent variable is the growth rate of the spinach plants in mm/2 days. The control will be a spinach plant with no fertilizer added, only water. It is hypothesized that the chemical fertilizers will increase the growth rate for the spinach plants. On the other hand, it is hypothesized that the organic fertilizer will give the spinach leaves a darker color. Fifteen spinach plants will be tested. For this experiment, two fertilizers of each type will be used, and there will be three trials for all plants. The organic fertilizers that will be used are cow manure and fish fertilizer. The chemical fertilizers are urea and magnesium sulphate. I have to plant the seeds and wait 7-10 for germination. Once they have germinated, the plants will be placed in the living room, where sunlight will provide the plants with the light needed for them to grow. A spray of room temperature water will be given to the plants every day. One tablespoon fertilizer will be added to the plants every week, and measurements will occur every other day for six weeks. Measurements will stop after six weeks. Conclusions will then be made to figure out which type of fertilizer effects the growth rate and leaf color of a spinach plant the most.

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  23. Clare Staib-Kaufman
    The Effect of Different Concentrations of Sugar in Water on the Growth of Aquatic Plants

    Some gardeners believe that adding sucrose to water for plants makes them grow faster and larger. The proposed experiment investigates this with the question "How is aquatic plant growth affected by the concentration of sugar in the water?" This experiment will use Duckweed, a fast-growing aquatic plant that grows on the surface of the water. Plants will be grown in the sugar water itself, rather than in soil with added sugar water. The independent variable is the concentration of sugar in the water. The primary dependent variable is the change in the biomass of the plants from the beginning to the end of the experiment. This will be measured by getting the mass of each plant before and after the experiment. Another dependent variable is the approximate percent of the water surface that is covered by the duckweed each day. This is a completely approximate observation and will be used to calculate the estimated growth rate of the plants. It is hypothesised that if sugar is added to the water, then the plant will grow larger at a faster rate. To conduct this experiment, four containers for the plants are needed. The amount of water that they can hold will be measured. Then, the sugar water will be prepared using four different amounts of sugar: ten grams, twenty grams, forty grams, and zero grams (the control). The water will be heated to dissolve the sugar. After the sugar water cools to room temperature, it will be poured into the containers. The biomass of each of the plants will be measured with a scale and recorded. Three plants will then be put in each bowl. The bowls will be placed in a warm area with a constant artificial light source for fifteen days. A picture will be taken with a camera each day to determine approximate water coverage and to record growth for future reference. Observations will be taken at the same time each day to record the approximate percentage of water surface coverage. At the end of the fifteen days, the biomass of the plants will be measured and recorded. The change in biomass and the approximate rate of growth will then be analyzed.

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  24. The Effect of Computer Screens on Memorization

    A common dilemma faced by adolescents world wide is finding the most efficient way to study. Studying involves memorizing examples, facts, and opinions about a specific topic. In addition to the growing number of hours spent studying, today’s growing use of technology has resulted in our generation to use screens for an extensive amount of time. This study aims to investigate if memorizing information off of a computer screen is in fact more effective than off of a tangible piece of paper. The independent variable is the medium on which the words are being displayed. The dependent variable is how well the subjects are able to recollect the given information. It is hypothesized that if the information is provided on a piece of paper, then the subject will be able to remember it better than if it is on a computer screen. To investigate this proposal, 10-15 subjects of a similar academic level are going to be given a list of Japanese characters on a piece of paper. They all should not be familiar with the Japanese language. 20 random symbols will be given. They are then going to attempt to restate them by writing them on a separate piece of paper. The subjects will be given 5 minutes to both memorize and restate the information. Next they are going to be given the same amount of symbols, with no logical order, on a computer screen. The test subject will then restate the characters by writing them to the best of their ability on a piece of paper. Again, they will be given 5 minutes for each part. Data will be collected and analyzed. The information can be used to compare and contrast the results on the screen and paper, to reveal if a piece of paper or computer screen is in fact more effective for memorizing information.

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  25. Brain fitness games are computerized mini games that stimulate different areas of the brain. These games are being used in numerous environments to help improve reasoning skills, attention skills, and memory skills. As people grow older, they experience glitches in our brain function. It takes longer to absorb information, and minds are not as sharp as they used to be. The aging of our brains can be partially helped by staying active both physically and mentally. In previous studies researchers tested the memories of the elderly. The middle aged were chosen because they are between a growing and aging brain. This study aims to see how playing computerized brain fitness games can affect the memory of a middle aged person. It is hypothesized that if a middle aged person plays brain fitness games regularly (20 minutes a day) then over time their memory will be improved. The independent variable is the use of the brain fitness games daily and the dependent variable is the effect the games have on the participant’s memory. To properly conduct this study, necessary devices will be accessed on the internet for the games and 10-15 participants’ ages 35-45 with no prior memory issues will be needed. Data will be collected by using a technique performed by neurologists which requires telling the participant seven words, then actively converse with them, and then have them repeat those same seven words afterwards. When using this technique the four words will be kept the same for each participant but changed between trials, and the length of the conversations will need to be kept the same to prevent error. In this study data will be collected after two, four, and six days of playing the games. These measurements will help accurately see how the games are affecting the participant’s memory. Collected data will be analyzed and displayed.

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  26. Nicholas Yoo
    26 November 2013
    The Effect of Nose Shape on a Rocket’s Performance

    Rockets have always been of great interest to people around the world because it opens possibilities to new worlds and possibly new life forms. If a better-designed rocket was made then more of the universe could be explored. This experiment is to test if a rocket’s shape would affect its performance. The movie October Sky had a big influence on this project because I would have never thought of this idea if I had not watched this movie. A question that arose while watching the movie was does a rocket’s shape affect its performance? A narrower nose would achieve a better performance because the drag would be less. There would be less frontal pressure since the air would not compress as much to flow around the narrower nose. The shape will be the IV and the DV will be the normal rocket. The control is the nose that comes with the rocket; the nose that is in the middle of thin and wide. The materials required would be two rocket bodies, three different rocket noses, a stand that can hold the rocket at a 45-degree angle, 24 rocket engines, a distance-measuring tool called the AltiTrak, and a stopwatch. First, the rocket stand will have to be set up at a 45-degree angle. Set up the rocket on the stand. Launch the rocket and measure the horizontal distance the rocket goes. Repeat this step three times. Then, replace the rocket’s nose with a different one. Launch this rocket three times and measure the horizontal distance it goes. Do this step with each of the different noses. Then, set up the stand at an angle perpendicular to the ground. Launch the rocket with the normal nose, and measure the vertical distance with the tool called AltiTrak. Do this with each of the remaining noses. For safety, an adult will be accompanying me and there will be a shelter that will protect against rockets going astray. The average data from all the trials will be compiled and analyzed.

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  27. Kelsey McCormack
    Ms. Day
    Science Research Program Period 6
    24 October 2013
    The Effect of Perceived Test Difficulty on Test Scores
    Past research at the University of Nevada by Eunsook Hong in the Department of Educational Psychology has shown that perception of test difficulty can greatly affect test anxiety. In this experiment, test anxiety did not have a direct effect on scores, but caused anxiety that affected the scores. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of perceived test difficulty on scores. The independent variable is how hard the test is expected to be, and the dependent variable is the test scores. The control is the group that is not told anything about the test. The hypothesis is that if students expect the test to be harder, then the test scores will be lower. First, the participants will be split into three equal sized groups. The first group will not be told anything about the test, the second group will be told that the test is easy, and the third group will be told that the test is hard. The groups that are told whether the test is easy or hard will be told immediately before the test by the person administering it. They will then be given 30 minutes to complete the same test. The test will be a passage to read and answer questions about designed for tenth grade students, as the participants are in level one English. The tests will then be scored and the data will be recorded. The materials needed would be at least 12 ninth grade participants in level one English classes and the test. The tests would take place in the media center. The participants would stay after school to take the test, with each test group in their own room.

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  28. James He
    The Effect of Different Comprehension Methods on Comprehension Scores

    In today’s world, reading comprehension is a huge part of our everyday education curriculum. Thus, the ability to read and comprehend literature is important. At the same time, communication is most commonly done through speaking and verbal interaction in the classroom and everyday life. As a result, your ability to grasp what you hear is also incredibly significant. However, these two things can be completely different. According to listening myths by Steven Brown, grasping words spoken to you and grasping words that you read differ. For example, cognates in different languages may be a given to you when you read them, but they may sound different than the word it corresponds to, which might throw you off. Additionally, different people say various words in contrasting ways from how you believe it’s supposed to be said, and that could also hurt your understanding. This compares to when you read the text, and you recognize that same word that threw you off when spoken to you since it has the same spelling. Therefore, this experiment investigates whether students will score higher on comprehension tests if they listen to a text, read a text, or read and listen to a text simultaneously. The independent variable will be the method of comprehending a text. In turn, the dependent variable will be the scores of each students’ tests corresponding to the different comprehending methods. Based on this, it is hypothesized that if students read and listen to a text, then their scores will be the highest. To accurately carry out this experiment, there won’t be a control group as each student will do each method. Everything else should be kept constant in general such as the three tests each group will take, and the text. To carry out this experiment, there will be three groups of students. Group one will read test one, listen to test two, and both for test three. Group two will listen to test one, do both for test two, and read test three. Lastly, group three will do both for test one, read test two, and listen to test two.For the listening test, students are being read the text by a recorded voice such as in an audio book. Afterwards, each test will be compared through a chart of each student’s individual scores of each test and a graph made to illustrate this data, and the difference between each group’s scores will tell which method is the most effective.

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